Upama, aka: Upamā; 10 Definition(s)

Introduction

Upama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

Upamā (उपमा).—The Goddess in Brahmakṣetra.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 130.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Upamā (उपमा, “simile”) refers to one of the four “figures of speech” (alaṃkāra), used when composing dramatic compositions (kāvya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17.

There are five kinds of upamā defined:

  1. simile of praise (praśaṃsā),
  2. simile of censure (nindā),
  3. simile of conceit (kalpitā),
  4. simile of uniqueness (sadśṛī),
  5. simile of partial likeness (kiṃcit sadṛśī).
(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Upamā (उपमा, “simile”).—One of the four alaṃkāra, or “figure of speech”;—Description of upamā: When in a poetical composition anything is compared on the basis of some similarity, it is an instance of Simile (upamā). It relates to quality and form.

(Source): archive.org: Natya Shastra

Upamā (उपमा, “simile”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—The figure Upamā is the resemblance between two things expressed in a single sentence and unaccompanied with the statement of difference. In the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita, there is found, some fascinating instances of Upamā.

(Source): Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Upamā (उपमा).—A well-known term in Rhetorics meaning the figure of speech ' simile ' or ' comparison '. The word is often found in the Nirukta in the same sense; cf. अथात उपमाः (athāta upamāḥ) | 'यत् अतत् तत्सदृशम् (yat atat tatsadṛśam)'इति गार्ग्यः । (iti gārgyaḥ |) Nir III.13. Generally an inferior thing is compared to another that is superior in quality.

(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

upama : (in cpds.) like; similar; having the qualities of. || upamā (f.), simile; parable; comparison.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Upama, (adj.) (compar. -superl. formation fr. upa, cp. Lat. summus fr. *(s)ub-mo) “coming quite or nearly up to”, i.e. like, similar, equal D. I, 239 (andha-veṇ°); M. I, 432 (taruṇ° a young looking fellow); A. IV, 11 udak° puggala a man like water); Pv. I, 11 (khett° like a well cultivated field; = sadisa PvA. 7); PvA. 2, 8 etc.—Note. ūpama metri causa see ū° and cp. opamma & upamā. (Page 145)

— or —

Upamā, (f.) (f. of upama in abstract meaning) likeness, simile, parable, example (cp. formula introducing u. S. II, 114; M. I, 148); Sn. 705 (cp. Dh. 129, 130), 1137 (= upanidhā sadisaṃ paṭibhāgo Nd2 158); It. 114; Vism. 341, 478, 512, 582 sq. , 591 sq.; PvA. 29, 112 (dhen°); SnA 329, 384; Sdhp. 29, 44, 259.

—vacana expression of comparison (usually applied to part. evaṃ) SnA 13, 472; KhA 185, 195, 208, 212; PvA. 25. (Page 145)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

upamā (उपमा).—f (S) corruptly upama n A simile; the object adduced in illustration. 2 Resemblance, similitude. 3 A resemblance (as a picture, an image, an effigy, a figure).

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upama (उपम).—n A simile &c. v . See under upamā.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upamā (उपमा).—f A simile. Resemblance.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upama (उपम).—a. Ved.

1) Highest, uppermost.

2) Most excellent, best, eminent, first.

3) Nearest.

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Upamā (उपमा).—2 P., 3, 4. Ā.

1) To compare, liken; तेनोपमीयेत तमालनीलम् (tenopamīyeta tamālanīlam) Śi.3.8; स्तनौ मांसग्रन्थी कनककलशावित्युपमितौ (stanau māṃsagranthī kanakakalaśāvityupamitau) Bh.3.2.

2) To give, grant (Ved.).

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Upamā (उपमा).—

1) Resemblance, similarity, equality; स्फुटोपमं भूतिसितेन शम्भुना (sphuṭopamaṃ bhūtisitena śambhunā) Śi.1.4,17.69; Ki.6.23; इहोपमा सताम् (ihopamā satām) Pt.2.8 the same is the case with the good.

2) (In Rhet.) Comparison of two objects different from each other, simile, comparison; साधर्म्यमुपमा भेदे (sādharmyamupamā bhede) K. P.1; or सादृश्यं सुन्दरं वाक्यार्थोपस्कारकमुपमालंकृतिः (sādṛśyaṃ sundaraṃ vākyārthopaskārakamupamālaṃkṛtiḥ) R. G.; or उपमा यत्र सादृश्यलक्ष्मीरुल्लसतिः द्वयोः । हंसीव कृष्ण ते कीर्तिः स्वर्गङ्गायवगाहते (upamā yatra sādṛśyalakṣmīrullasatiḥ dvayoḥ | haṃsīva kṛṣṇa te kīrtiḥ svargaṅgāyavagāhate) || Chandr.5.3; Kāv.2.14; उपमा कालिदासस्य (upamā kālidāsasya) Subhāṣ. (Daṇdin mentions 32 varieties of upamā; see Kāv.2.15-5; as to words expressive of upamā see 2.57-65); see K. P.1 ad loc also.

3) The standard of comparison (upamāna); यथा दीपो निवातस्थो नेङ्गते सोपमा स्मृता (yathā dīpo nivātastho neṅgate sopamā smṛtā) Bg.6.19; (आत्मानमुपमां कृत्वा स्वेषु दारेषु रम्यताम् (ātmānamupamāṃ kṛtvā sveṣu dāreṣu ramyatām) Rām.5.21.8; see °द्रव्य (dravya) below; mostly at the end of comp., 'like', 'resembling'; बुबुधे न वुधोपमः (bubudhe na vudhopamaḥ) R.1.47; so स्वर्गोपम, अमरोपम, अनुपम (svargopama, amaropama, anupama) &c.

4) A likeness (as a picture, portrait &c.

5) Heresy, irreligious doctrine; विधर्भः परधर्मश्च आभास उपमा छलः । अधर्मशाखाः पञ्चेमा धर्मज्ञोऽधर्मवत्त्यजेत् (vidharbhaḥ paradharmaśca ābhāsa upamā chalaḥ | adharmaśākhāḥ pañcemā dharmajño'dharmavattyajet) || Bhāg.7.15.12.

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Relevant definitions

Search found 107 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Nirupama
Nirupama (निरुपम).—a. peerless, matchless, incomparable. Nirupama is a Sanskrit compound consis...
Purnopama
Pūrṇopamā (पूर्णोपमा).—a full or complete simile, i. e. one in which the four requisites उपमान,...
Rashanopama
Raśanopamā (रशनोपमा).—a variety of the figure उपमा (upamā); it is 'a string or series' of compa...
Vastvupama
Vastvupamā (वस्त्वुपमा).—a variety of Upamā according to Daṇḍin who thus illustrates it:-राजीवम...
Pratishedhopama
Pratiṣedhopamā (प्रतिषेधोपमा).—one of the several kinds of Upamā mentioned by Daṇḍin. It is thu...
Samanopama
Samānopamā (समानोपमा).—a kind of Upamā; सरूपशब्दवाच्यत्वात् सा समानोपमा यथा । बालेवोद्यान- माले...
Utprekshitopama
Utprekṣitopamā (उत्प्रेक्षितोपमा).—A kind of उपमा (upamā).Utprekṣitopamā is a Sanskrit compound...
Malopama
Mālopamā (मालोपमा).—a variety of Upamā or simile, in which one Upameya is compared to several U...
Samopama
Samopamā (समोपमा).—a kind of Upamā or simile. Samopamā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the...
Sahopama
Sahopamā (सहोपमा).—a kind of Upamā. Sahopamā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sah...
Nindanopama
Nindanopamā (निन्दनोपमा).—a comparison which involves reproofs; Kāv.2.3. Nindanopamā is a Sansk...
Viparyasopama
Viparyāsopamā (विपर्यासोपमा).—an inverted comparison.Viparyāsopamā is a Sanskrit compound consi...
Amaropama
Amaropama (अमरोपम).—a. God-like. Amaropama is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms amara...
Shleshopama
Śleṣopamā (श्लेषोपमा).—a comparison containing double meanings; शिशिरांशुप्रतिद्वन्द्वि श्रीम् ...
Upameyopama
Upameyopamā (उपमेयोपमा).—a figure of speech in which the उपमान (upamāna) and उपमेय (upameya) ar...

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