Upakrama: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Upakrama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Upkram.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

The six Upakrama (उपक्रम, “therapeutic measures”) are as follows:

  1. Bṛṃhaṇa,
  2. Laṅghana,
  3. Stambhana,
  4. Svedana,
  5. Snehana,
  6. Rūkṣaṇa.

They are again based on the tridoṣa two for each doṣa—one for increase and the other for decrease.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kāmasūtra)

Upakrama (उपक्रम) refers to the “commencement” (of practicing sex), according to the Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyana and Jaśodhara’s commentary called the Jayamaṅgalā .—Accordingly, “[When you are] about to practise sex (upakramaratasyopakrame), [first you should] rub her genitalia with your hand, and when there is dampness, the sexual act can be commenced. This is the restoration of passion”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Upakrama (उपक्रम) refers to the “commencement (of contemplation)”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī (KSTS vol. 65, 330).—Accordingly, “When one begins to contemplate (cintā-upakrama) ‘What is the reality of the body, etc.?’ [and subsequently realizes] “it is simply a form of awareness, replete with the Light of Consciousness,” then those [levels] from the Void to the body manifest as [they really are,] of one essence with Awareness, as if transmuted by its elixir. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Upakrama (उपक्रम, “commencement”) refers to one of the “four doors” explained in the Anuyogadvārasūtra: a technical treatise on analytical methods, a kind of guide to applying knowledge.—Its title can be understood as meaning ‘the doors of exposition’. This stresses that the text focuses on the ways of approaching and understanding concepts. There are four doors [viz., upakrama, ‘commencement’].

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

upakrama (उपक्रम).—m (S) Beginning, commencement, setting to or upon. 2 Entrance into form or being (of an action); initial or inchoate stage; beginning.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

upakrama (उपक्रम).—m Beginning. Entrance into form or being (of an action), initial stage.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Upakrama (उपक्रम).—1 Beginning, commencement; रामोपक्रममाचख्यौ रक्षःपरिभवं नवम् (rāmopakramamācakhyau rakṣaḥparibhavaṃ navam) R.12.42 begun by Rāma; किमुपक्रमो रावणः (kimupakramo rāvaṇaḥ) Mv.2.

2) Approach, advance; साहस° (sāhasa°) forcible advance Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 7; so योषितः सुकुमारोपक्रमाः (yoṣitaḥ sukumāropakramāḥ) ibid.

3) An undertaking, work, enterprize.

4) A plan, contrivance, means, expedient, stratagem, remedy; सामादि- भिरुपक्रमैः (sāmādi- bhirupakramaiḥ) Manusmṛti 7.17,159; M.3; R.18.15; Y.1.345; Śiśupālavadha 2.76.

5) Attendance on a patient, treatment, practice of medicine, physicking.

6) A test of honesty, trying the fidelity of a friend &c.; see उपधा (upadhā).

7) A kind of ceremony preparatory to reading the Vedas.

8) Heroism, Courage.

9) Flight.

1) Behaviour, action; यद्यप्यकृतकृत्यानामीदृशः स्यादुपक्रमः (yadyapyakṛtakṛtyānāmīdṛśaḥ syādupakramaḥ) Rām.5.64.3.

11) The rim of a wheel; Hch.

Derivable forms: upakramaḥ (उपक्रमः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Upakrama (उपक्रम).—m. (= Pali upakkama; to upakramati; see also upasaṃkrama), violence, doing violence to…, attack (by violence): Lalitavistara 258.2 (verse) kāyopakrama-karaṇai(r) manyante bāliśāḥ śuddhiṃ; Mahāvastu ii.448.12 °meṇa ātmānaṃ māreyā; 492.1 ātmānaṃ ca upakrameṇa māritukāmaḥ; similarly 493.20; Divyāvadāna 235.9 sa evaṃvidha upakramaḥ kṛtaḥ; Bodhisattvabhūmi 244.6 ātmopakrama-duḥkham, and 7 paropa- krama-duḥkham,…thru violence by oneself and by others.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakrama (उपक्रम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Deliberate commencement or undertaking; providing means, and anticipating consequences. 2. A beginning in general. 3. A particular ceremony preparatory to reading the Vedas. 4. A atratagem. 5. A means, an expedient. 6. Trying the fidelity, &c. of a counselor or friend. 7. Valor. 8. Practice of medicine, physicking. 9. Flight, retreat. 10. Approach. E. upa over, &c. kram to go, affix ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakrama (उपक्रम).—[upa-kram + a], m. 1. A beginning, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 216, 3, cf. 5. 2. Deliberate commencement, a design, [Pañcatantra] 263, 2. 3. First designed work, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 98. 4. Proceeding, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 65, 8. 5. An expedient, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 107. 6. Practice of medicine, [Suśruta] 1, 5, 11. 7. Use (medical), [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 17, 37.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakrama (उपक्रम).—[masculine] approach, arrival; commencement, enterprise; means, expedient.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Upakrama (उपक्रम):—[=upa-krama] [from upa-kram] m. the act of going or coming near, approach, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] setting about, undertaking, commencement, beginning, [Lāṭyāyana; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] enterprise, planning, original conception, plan, [Raghuvaṃśa; Rājataraṅgiṇī; Pañcatantra] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] anything leading to a result

5) [v.s. ...] a means, expedient, stratagem, exploit, [Mahābhārata; Yājñavalkya; Mālavikāgnimitra] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] remedy, medicine, [Suśruta]

7) [v.s. ...] attendance (on a patient), treatment, practice or application of medicine, physicking, [Suśruta] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] the rim of a wheel, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

9) [v.s. ...] a particular ceremony preparatory to reading the Vedas, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] trying the fidelity etc. of a counsellor or friend, [ib.]

11) [v.s. ...] heroism, courage, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] effort, endeavour, [Campaka-śreṣṭhi-kathānaka]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Upakrama (उपक्रम):—[upa-krama] (maḥ) 1. m. Deliberate undertaking; a commencement; means.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Upakrama (उपक्रम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Uvakkama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Upakrama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Upakrama in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Upakrama (उपक्रम) [Also spelled upkram]:—(nm) preparation, a beginning; prelude; —[karanā] to undertake, to set about (doing something).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Upakrama (ಉಪಕ್ರಮ):—

1) [noun] the act or an instance of approaching; a going near.

2) [noun] a starting or commencing; a beginning.

3) [noun] a test of honesty; a trial of fidelity.

4) [noun] a plan, contrivance, means; expedient, stratagem, etc.

5) [noun] attendance on a patient, treatment, practice of medicine, etc.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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