Ud: 10 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Ud means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Ud-, (Vedic ud-; Goth. ūt = Ohg. ūz = E. out, Oir. ud-; cp. Lat. ūsque “from-unto” & Gr. u(ζteros = Sk. uttara) prefix in verbal & nominal combn. One half of all the words beginning with u° are combns. with ud°, which in compn. appears modified according to the rules of assimilation as prevailing in Pāli.—I. Original meaning “out in an upward direction”, out of, forth; like ummujjati to rise up out of (water), ujjalati to blaze up high; udeti to come out of & go up; ukkaṇṭha stretching one’s neck out high (cp. Ger. “empor”); uggilati to “swallow up”, i.e. spit out.—The opposites of ud- are represented by either ava or (see under II. & IV. & cp. ucc-âvaca; uddhambhāgiya: orambhāgiya), ni (see below) or vi (as udaya: vi-aya or vaya).—II. Hence develop 2 clearly defined meanings, viz. (1) out, out of, away from —: °aṇha (“day-out”); °agga (“top-out”); °āgacchati; °ikkhati look out for, expect; °kantati tear out; °khitta thrown off; °khipati pick out; °gacchati come out; °gamaṇa rising (opp. o°); °gajjati shout out; °gilati (opp. o°); °ghoseti shout out; °cināti pick out; °chiṭṭha thrown out; °jagghati laugh at, cp. Ger. aus-lachen °tatta smelted out; °tāna stretched out; °dāleti tear out; °dhaṭa lifted out, drawn out; °disati point out to; °drīyati pull out; °pajjati to be produced; °patti & °pāda coming out, origin, birth; °paṭipatiyā out of reach; °paḷāseti sound out; °phāsulika “ribs out”; etc. etc.—(2) up (high) or high up, upwards, on to (cp. ucca high, uttara higher) —: °kujja erect (opp. ava°); °kūla sloping up (opp. vi°); °khipati throw-up, °gaṇhāti take up; °chindati cut up; °javati go up-stream, °javana id. (opp. o°); uñña pride; °thāna “standing up” °ṭhita got up; °tarati come out, go up (opp. o°); °nata raised up, high (opp. o°); °nama e-levation; °nāmin raised (opp. ni°); °patati fly up; etc. etc.—III, More specialised meanings (from elliptical or figurative use) are: (1) ud° = without, “ex-”, e.g. unnaṅgala “outplough” = without a plough; uppabbajita an ex-bhikkhu. ‹-› (2) ud° = off, i.e. out of the way, wrong, e.g. uppatha a wrong road, ummagga id.—(3) ud° = out of the ordinary, i.e. exceedingly, e.g. ujjaṅgala extremely dusty; uppanduka very pale; uppoṭheti to beat hard.—IV. Dialectical variations & combinations.—(1) Owing to semantic affinity we often find an interchange between ud° and ava° (cp. E. break up = break down, grind up or down, tie up or down), according to different points of view. This wavering between the two prefixes was favoured by the fact that o always had shown an unstable tendency & had often been substituted for or replaced by ū, which in its place was reduced to u before a double consonant, thus doing away with the diff. between ū & u or o & u. For comparison see the foll. : ukkamati & okk°; uññā: avañña; uddiyati: odd°; uḍḍeyya oḍḍ°; uppīḷeti: opīḷ°; etc., & cp. abbhokirati › abbhukkirati.—(2) the most frequent combns. that ud° enters into are those with the intensifying prefixes abhi° and sam°; see e.g. abhi + ud (= abbhud°) + gacchati, °jalati; °ṭhāti; °namati etc.; sam + ud + eti; °kamati; °chindati; °tejeti; °pajjati etc. (Page 132)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ud (उद्) [or उत्, ut].—S A particle and prefix to words; implying I. Superiority in degree or place: (over, up, above, aloft.) II. Separation or disjunction: (from, out of, away from.)

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ud (उद्).—ind. A prefix to verbs and nouns. G. M. gives the following senses with illustrations:(1) Superiority in place, rank or power; up, upwards, upon, on, over, above (udbala). (2) Separation, disjunction उत्कञ्चुकः (utkañcukaḥ); out, out off, from, apart &c.; उद्गच्छति (udgacchati). (3) Motion upwards (utkandharaḥ, utpatāka, uttiṣṭhati) पुरन्दर- श्रीः परमुत्पताकं प्रविश्य पौरैरभिनन्द्यमानः (purandara- śrīḥ paramutpatākaṃ praviśya paurairabhinandyamānaḥ) R.2.74. (4) acquisition, gain; उपार्जति (upārjati). (5) Publicity; उच्चरति (uccarati). (6) Wonder; anxiety; उत्सुक (utsuka). (7) Liberation; उद्गत (udgata). (8) Absence; उत्पथ (utpatha). (9) Blowing, expanding, opening; उत्फुल्ल (utphulla). (1) Pre-eminence; उद्दिष्ट (uddiṣṭa). (11) Power; उत्साहः (utsāhaḥ); उत् प्राबल्यवियोगोर्ध्वकर्मलाभप्रकाशाश्चर्यमोक्षणाभावदलप्राधान्यशक्तिषु (ut prābalyaviyogordhvakarmalābhaprakāśāścaryamokṣaṇābhāvadalaprādhānyaśaktiṣu). With nouns it forms adj. and adv. compounds; उदर्चिस्, उच्छिख, उद्बाहु, उन्निद्रम्, उत्पथम्, उद्दामम् (udarcis, ucchikha, udbāhu, unnidram, utpatham, uddāmam) &c. It is sometimes used in the Veda as an expletive simply to fill out the verse.

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Ud (उद्).—= उन्द् (und) q. v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ud (उद्).—or ut ind. A particle and prefix to words implying, 1. Superiority in degree; (over, above.) 2. In place, (over, above, on, upon.) 3. Pride. 4. Publicity. 5. Power. 6. Separation, disjunction, (off, from, out of.) 7. Emancipation. 8. Binding. 9. Helplessness, weakness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ud (उद्).— (properly acc. sing. n. of u, probably an obsolete pronominal base, akin to va in ava, eva, etc.), a prefix, Up, out. I. Combined and compounded with verbs and their derivatives, q. cf. Ii. Former part of comp. nouns, e. g. ud-ayudha, adj. With raised weapon (literally, having a weapon upward), Chr. 4, 17. utpakṣman, i. e. ud-, adj. The eye-lids of which are elevated, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 90. ud-dāma, adj. Unfettered (literally, having the fetter out), [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 23, 21.

— Cf. for , [Gothic.] and [Anglo-Saxon.] ut; O.H. G. ūz.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ud (उद्).—1. (only °— in nouns and verbs) up, upwards, forth, out, beyond.

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Ud (उद्).—2. und unatti & undati (also [Middle]), [participle] utta & unna spring (water), bubble up, wet, bathe.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ud (उद्):—1. ud a particle and prefix to verbs and nouns. (As implying superiority in place, rank, station, or power) up, upwards

2) upon, on

3) over, above. (As implying separation and disjunction) out, out of, from, off, away from, apart. (According to native authorities ud may also imply publicity, pride, indisposition, weakness, helplessness, binding, loosing, existence, acquisition.) ud is not used as a separable adverb or preposition

4) in those rare cases, in which it appears in the Veda uncompounded with a verb, the latter has to be supplied from the context (e.g. ud utsam śatadhāram, [Atharva-veda iii, 24, 4], out (pour) a fountain of a hundred streams). ud is sometimes repeated in the Veda to fill out the verse, [Pāṇini 8-1, 6] (kiṃ na ud ud u harṣase dātavā u, [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini])

5) cf. [Zend] uz; [Hibernian or Irish] uas and in composition os, ois e.g. os-car, ‘a leap, bound’, etc. See also uttama, 1. uttara, etc.

6) 2. ud or und [class] 7. [Parasmaipada] unatti ([Ṛg-veda v, 85, 4]) : [class] 6. [Parasmaipada] undati (p. undat, [Ṛg-veda ii, 3, 2] : [imperative] 3. [plural] undantu, [Atharva-veda vi, 68, 1; 2]) [Ātmanepada] undate ([Atharva-veda v, 19, 4]; undāṃ cakāra, undiṣyati etc., [Dhātupāṭha xxix, 20])

—to flow or issue out, spring (as water);

—to wet, bathe, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra] etc.:—[Causal] ([Aorist] aundidat, [Vopadeva xviii, 1]) :—[Desiderative] undidiṣati, [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 6-1, 3];—

7) cf. [Greek] ὕδωρ; [Latin] unda; [Gothic] vat-o; Old High [German] waz-ar; [modern] [English] wat-er; [Lithuanian] wand-ū́.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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