Tiryanc, Tiryañc, Tiryak: 24 definitions


Tiryanc means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Tiryanch.

In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Tiryanc in Yoga glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Tiryak (तिर्यक्) is a Sanskrit word referring to “upside-down”. It is used in Yoga.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Tiryak (तिर्यक्).—The origin of the different creatures described.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 298-303.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Tiryak (तिर्यक्) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) , or “movements made with the arms (bāhu)”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 9. These movements form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Tiryañc (तिर्यञ्च्) or Tiryagrekhā refers to a “straight, slanted line”.—The Sanskrit texts have generally paid much more attention to the goddess as Speech in deference to the primacy always attributed to it over the written word. Even so, we do find rare references to the goddess as the Line—Rekhā. The Line in its three forms—straight, slanted (tiryañc-rekhā) and “raised up” (unnatā) that constitute the sides of the Triangle, are the three energies and goddesses in which Kubjikā manifests as the Triangle and in which see rests as the Spiral. These are synthesized as aspects of the goddess manifesting progressively to assume the form of a Triangle set in three dimensions commonly represented by a water chestnut (śṛṅgāta).

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Tiryanc in Arts glossary
Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Tiryañc (तिर्यञ्च्) refers to the “curved (flight)” (of a hawk), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the training of hawks]: “[...] When the hawk is seen to be manned it should be lured in a creance to a piece of meat from increasing distances. The distance is to be increased gradually, and the hawk should be lured twice or thrice. If on being lured, it does not hesitate, nor fly in a curve (tiryañc), and does not ‘carry’ its meat, then it should be lured without the creance. The next step is to cast it into a tree and then lure it. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Tiryañc (तिर्यञ्च्) or Tiryaggati refers to the “animals” according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. People who, in their former lives, have trussed them up, whipped them or been guilty of crimes of this kind, assume the animal form of an elephant (haja), a horse (aśva), a cow (go), a sheep (eḍaka) or a deer (mṛga).

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Tiryak (तिर्यक्) is the name of a Rāśi (zodiac sign) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Tiryak).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Tiryak (तिर्यक्, “animal”) refers to one of the “six destinations” (gata) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 57). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., tiryak). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Tiryañc (तिर्यञ्च्) or Tiryañca.—What is the cause for the influx of karmas leading to subhuman (tiryañca / tiryaṃca) life? Deceitfulness (māyā) is the cause of influx of karmas leading to subhuman life.

What are the other causes for the influx of karmas leading to subhuman (tiryañca) life? The preaching of religion from a perverted attitude, lack of good conduct and propriety, desire for cheating others, blue and grey thought-colourations of the soul, mournful concentration during death which are the varieties of deceitful conduct, are the other causes of influx of karmas leading to sub human life.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Tiryañc (तिर्यञ्च्, “horizontal”) or Tiryagvyatikrama refers to “exceeding the limits for movement set in the downwards directions”, representing one of the five transgressions (aticara) of the “vow of directional limits” (digvirati): one of the seven supplementary vows (śīlavrata), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 28.—What is meant by exceeding the limit of horizontal movement (tiryag-vyatikrama)? To go beyond the limit set in horizontal direction though tunnels or on land is called exceeding limits of horizontal movement.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Tiryañc (तिर्यञ्च्) refers to the “animal world”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “[...] And even among the five-sensed beings, many belong to the animal world (tiryañc) such as the cow, the deer, the bird, the serpent, etc. Hence human birth is as difficult of attainment as a heap of jewels at the crossing of the roads. And if one loses the condition of a human being by negligence, it is as difficult to attain it once again, as it is difficult for a burnt tree to regain its old freshness. Even if human birth is attained, a good country, a good family, keen senses, health, etc. are more and more difficult of attainment. [...]”.

Synonyms: Tiryaga, Tiryagga.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tiryak (तिर्यक्).—a S Oblique, tranverse, slant. 2 ad Obliquely, aslant, awry.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tiryañc (तिर्यञ्च्).—a. (tiraścī f., rarely tiryañcī)

1) Oblique, transverse, horizontal, awry; तिर्यगूर्ध्वमधस्ताच्च व्यापको महिमा हरेः (tiryagūrdhvamadhastācca vyāpako mahimā hareḥ) Kumārasambhava 6.71.

2) Crooked, curved.

3) Crossing over, traversing.

4) Winding.

5) Lying in the middle or between.

-m.,-n. 1) An animal (going horizontally as distinguished from man who walks erect), a lower or irrational animal; बन्धाय दिव्ये न तिरश्चि कश्चित् पाशा- दिरासादितपौरुषः स्यात् (bandhāya divye na tiraści kaścit pāśā- dirāsāditapauruṣaḥ syāt) N.3.2; Kumārasambhava 1.48.

2) A bird.

3) (With Jainas) The organic world, or plants.

See also (synonyms): tiryac.

Tiryak (तिर्यक्).—ind. Obliquely, crookedly, in a slanting or oblique direction; तिर्यगास्थाय संक्रुद्धः पक्षीशे भगवान्हरिः (tiryagāsthāya saṃkruddhaḥ pakṣīśe bhagavānhariḥ) Rām. 7.7.41; विलोकयति तिर्यक् (vilokayati tiryak) K. P.1; Meghadūta 51; Kumārasambhava 5.74.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Tiryak (तिर्यक्).—adv. (used in the sense of Pali tiro, [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] tiras, tiraskṛta, q.v.; the converse use of Sanskrit tiras in the sense of tiryak, crosswise, is recorded by [Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v. 2a from lexicons, and once in Mārk. Pur.; but in this one passage it seems to me that tiras may have its Pali meaning of outside, away, afar), outside, away, afar, in contrast with iha; neha na tiryak nobhayam antarā Śikṣāsamuccaya 252.15, not here, not afar, not between the two. (Bendall and Rouse, Transl. 234 line 2, across; but this seems manifest nonsense in the context.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tiryak (तिर्यक्) or Tiryyak.—ind. Crookedly, awry: see tiryac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tiryañc (तिर्यञ्च्).—i. e. tiras-añc (the final s is dropped, as often, and a is changed to ī, as before as, kṛ, bhū, cf. viśvadryañc, samyañc). I. adj., f. tiraścī, i. e. tiras-añc + ī, Horizontal (ved.). Ii. acc. sing. n. ºyak, adv. 1. Over, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 291 (cf. ā-gam). 2. Horizontally, Mahābhārata 2, 1396. 3. Sideways, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 23, 5. Iii. m. and n. 1. An animal, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 2, 34. 2. An amphibious animal, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 40.

— Cf. [Gothic.] thairh, thairko; [Anglo-Saxon.] thurh.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tiryañc (तिर्यञ्च्).—([nominative] [masculine] tiryaṅ, [feminine] tiraścī, [neuter] tiryak) transverse, oblique, horizontal; [masculine] [neuter] an animal (as horizontal, not erect), [especially] an amphibious animal, i.[grammar] any creature except man; [neuter] breadth, [adverb] = tiraścā or ści sideways, obliquely, across.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tiryak (तिर्यक्):—[from tiraḥ] a ind. See yañc

2) [v.s. ...] in [compound] also for yañc.

3) Tiryañc (तिर्यञ्च्):—[from tiraḥ] mfn. ([from] tiras + , [Pāṇini 6-3, 94]; [nominative case] m. ryaṅ n. ryak f. raścī, also ryañcī, [Vopadeva iv, 12]) going or lying crosswise or transversely or obliquely, oblique, transverse (opposed to anv-añc), horizontal (opposed to ūrdhva), [Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] going across, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv, 9, 3, 2 f.]

5) [v.s. ...] moving tortuously, [Horace H. Wilson]

6) [v.s. ...] curved, crooked, [Horace H. Wilson]

7) [v.s. ...] meandering, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) [v.s. ...] lying in the middle or between (a tone), [, xi, 4, 2, 5 ff.; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya i, 149]

9) [v.s. ...] m. n. ‘going horizontally’, an animal (amphibious animal, bird, etc.), [Manu-smṛti v, 40]

10) [v.s. ...] m., [xii, 57; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

11) [v.s. ...] the organic world (including plants), [Jaina literature]

12) [v.s. ...] n. = ryak-pramāṇa, [Śulba-sūtra]

13) [v.s. ...] f. the female of any animal, [Horace H. Wilson]

14) Tiryak (तिर्यक्):—[from tiryañc > tiraḥ] b ind. across, obliquely, transversely, horizontally, sideways, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya; Manu-smṛti] etc.

15) c ryañc See p. 447, col. 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tiryak (तिर्यक्):—adv. Crookedly.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Tiryak (तिर्यक्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Tiri, Tiria.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tiryanc in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Tiryanc in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Tiryak (तिर्यक्):—(a) slanting, oblique; crooked; ([g]) —[yoni] the aves; —[rūpa] an oblique form.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Tiryak is another spelling for तिर्यक [tiryaka].—n. an animal; bird;

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Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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