Taruna, Taruṇa, Tāruṇa: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Taruna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Tarun.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Taruṇa (तरुण) is another name (synonym) for Śvetairaṇḍa: one of the three varieties of Eraṇḍa, which is a Sanskrit name representing Ricinus communis (castor-oil-plant). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 8.55-57), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Eraṇḍa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), and it is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Taruṇa (तरुण) refers to “small trees”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Śiva said to Sitā:—“[...] O my beloved, beautiful woman, clouds will not reach the place where I have to make an abode for you. [...] O Goddess of Devas, there are many beautiful blue lotuses emitting sweet fragrance. On the banks there are many grass lands, small (taruṇa) and big trees and the saffron flowers increasing the fragrance of the waters with which the lakes are full”.

2) Taruṇa (तरुण) is the name of a deity referring to “the ever young”, according the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.41.—Accordingly, as Viṣṇu and others eulogized Śiva:—“[...] obeisance to Tāra (star), Sutāra (one that enables others to cross), Taruṇa (the ever young), and the brilliant. Obeisance to Śiva who is beneficent to the gods, the lord, the great soul, Obeisance to you the great; obeisance to you, the dark-necked God”.

3) Taruṇa (तरुण) refers to “youthful”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.50 (“Description of fun and frolic”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Then the sixteen celestial ladies arrived there and saw the couple [i.e., Śiva and Pārvatī] with great respect. [...] The celestial ladies made these sweet witty remarks to Him one by one. [...] Ahalyā said:—‘Leave off your old age. Be extremely youthful (taruṇa) so that Menā whose mind is fixed in her daughter may approve of you’”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Taruṇa (तरुण) refers to “young men”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Venus also presides over perfumes, flowers, perfumed paste, gems, diamonds, ornaments, lotus or conch shells, beds, bridegrooms, young men (taruṇa), young women, objects tending to provoke lustful desires and persons that eat good and sweet meals; over gardens, waters, voluptuaries and lewed men; over fame, comfort, generosity, beauty, and learning, over ministers, merchants, potters, birds and triphala”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Taruṇa (तरुण) refers to “delicate (hands and feet)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 19).—Accordingly, “Furthermore, some say that generosity is the cause and condition (hetupratyaya) for obtaining the thirty-two marks. Why is that? [...] Because one gives tasty food (madhura-sāhāra), one obtains the marks consisting of having soft and delicate hands and feet (mṛdu-taruṇa-pāṇipāda) and the seven parts of the body well-rounded (saptotsada). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Taruna in India is the name of a plant defined with Ricinus communis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Croton spinosus L. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Journal of Palynology (1980)
· Catalogus Plantarum Madagascariensium (1906)
· Cytologia (1980)
· Kew Bulletin (1984)
· Journal of Cytology and Genetics (1981)
· Species Plantarum

If you are looking for specific details regarding Taruna, for example extract dosage, side effects, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, health benefits, chemical composition, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

taruṇa : (adj.) young; of tender age. (m.), a young man.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Taruṇa, (adj.) (Vedic taruṇa, cp. Gr. tέrus, tέrhQ; Lat. tener & perhaps tardus) 1. tender, of tender age, young; new, newly (°-) fresh. Esp. applied to a young calf: M. I, 459 (in simile); °vaccha, °vacchaka, °vacchī: Vin. I, 193; J. I, 191; DhA. II, 35; VvA. 200.—Vin. I, 243 (fresh milk); D. I, 114 (Gotamo t. c’eva t. -paribbājako ca “a young man and only lately become a wanderer”); PvA. 3, 46 (°janā), 62 (°putta); Bdhd 93, 121.—2. (m. & nt.) the shoot of a plant, or a young plant Vin. I, 189 (tāla°); M. I, 432; Vism. 361 (taruṇa-tāla). (Page 298)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

taruṇa (तरुण).—a (S) Arrived at puberty, adult, young.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tarūṇa (तरूण).—a Young, adult.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Taruṇa (तरुण).—a. [tṝ-unan Uṇādi-sūtra 3.54]

1) Young, youthful, juvenile (as a man).

2) (a) Young, newly-born or produced, tender, soft; वितीर्णे सर्वस्वे तरुणकरुणापूर्णहृदयाः (vitīrṇe sarvasve taruṇakaruṇāpūrṇahṛdayāḥ) Bhartṛhari 3.49. (b) Newly risen, not high in the sky (as the sun); वासो वसाना तरुणार्करागम् (vāso vasānā taruṇārkarāgam) Kumārasambhava 3.54.

3) New, fresh; तरुणं दधि (taruṇaṃ dadhi) Chāṇ.64; तरुणं सर्षपशाकं नवौदनं पिच्छिलानि च दधीनि । अल्पव्ययेन सुन्दरि ग्राम्यजनो मिष्टमश्नाति (taruṇaṃ sarṣapaśākaṃ navaudanaṃ picchilāni ca dadhīni | alpavyayena sundari grāmyajano miṣṭamaśnāti) || Chand. M.1.

4) Lively, vivid.

-ṇaḥ A young man, youth; गतवयसामपि पुंसां येषामर्था भवन्ति ते तरुणाः (gatavayasāmapi puṃsāṃ yeṣāmarthā bhavanti te taruṇāḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.11; Bv.2.62.

2) The castor-oil plant.

3) Large cumin-seed (Mar. jireṃ).

4) Newly produced liquor; तरुणस्तु नवे यूनि मद्ये प्रथम उत्कटे (taruṇastu nave yūni madye prathama utkaṭe) Nm.

-ṇī 1 A young or youthful woman; वृद्धस्य तरुणी विषम् (vṛddhasya taruṇī viṣam) Chān.78.

2) Name of some plants such as Aloe Perfoliata (Mar. koraphaḍa), Rosa Glandulifera (Mar. pāṃḍharā gulāba) etc.

-ṇam 1 Cartilage.

2) A sprout.

--- OR ---

Tāruṇa (तारुण).—a. Youthful, young.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taruṇa (तरुण).—mfn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) 1. Young, juvenile. 2. New, fresh, novel. m.

(-ṇaḥ) 1. A young man, one of the virile age. 2. The castor-oil-plant. 3. Large cumin seed. f. (-ṇī) 1. A young woman from 16 to 30 years of age; generally however one about the first age. 2. The alœ tree, (A. perfoliata.) A perfume, commonly Chira. 4. A flower, the Indian white rose, (Rosa standulifera) n.

(-ṇaṃ) A kind of flower, that of the Achyran anthes aspera (kubjapuṣpa.) E. tṝ to pass away, unan Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taruṇa (तरुण).—i. e. tṛ10 + van + a (cf. the last), I. adj., f. ṇī. 1. Young, Mahābhārata 4, 1108. 2. Fresh, [Suśruta] 1, 191, 8. 3. Vivid, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 3, 86. 4. Beginning, [Suśruta] 2, 52, 16. Ii. m. A young man, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 11. Iii. f. ṇī, A young woman, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 59, 1; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 186, 22. Iv. n. Cartilage, [Suśruta] 1, 35, 1.

— Cf.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taruṇa (तरुण).—[feminine] ī young, tender, new, fresh; just begun (heat), just risen (sun, moon, etc.). [masculine] young man, [Name] of [several] plants, also a man’s name; [feminine] taruṇī young woman, girl; [neuter] cartilage; sprout, stalk.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Taruṇa (तरुण):—mf(ī [Pāṇini 4-1, 15], [vArttika] 6, [Patañjali] [Ṛg-veda])n. (√tṝ; [gana] kapilakādi, [Gaṇaratna-mahodadhi 447]) ‘progressive’, young, tender, juvenile, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.

2) new, fresh, just risen (the sun cf. bālāditya), just begun (heat or a disease), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Kumāra-sambhava iii, 54; Suśruta]

3) tender (a feeling), [Bhartṛhari]

4) m. a youth, [Mahābhārata] etc. (cf. tarṇa)

5) Ricinus communis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) large cumin seed, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Name of a particular section in a Tantra work treating of various stages in a Tāntrika’s life, [Kulārṇava-tantra viii]

8) of a mythical being, [Mahābhārata ii, 7, 22]

9) of a Ṛṣi in the 11th Manv-antara, [Harivaṃśa 477]

10) m. n. the blossom of Trapa bispinosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) n. = ṇāsthi, [Suśruta]

12) a sprout (ifc., kuśa-), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra ii, 1, 10]

13) (cf. τέρην.)

14) Tāruṇa (तारुण):—mfn. [from] tar [gana] utsādi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taruṇa (तरुण):—[(ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) a.] Young, new. m. A young man; Castor oil tree; large cumin seed. n. A kind of flower. f. Young woman; aloe tree; a perfume; white rose.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Taruṇa (तरुण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Taruṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Taruna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Taruṇa (तरुण) [Also spelled tarun]:—(a) young, youthful; (nm) a youth, youngman; hence [taruṇī] (nf).

context information

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Taruṇa (तरुण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Taruṇa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Taruṇa (ತರುಣ):—

1) [adjective] being in the first or early stage of life or growth; not old; young.

2) [adjective] of recent origin, lately begun; new; fresh.

--- OR ---

Taruṇa (ತರುಣ):—

1) [noun] a male human being who is between boyhood and maturity, a young man.

2) [noun] the time or period following immediately a stage, incident etc.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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