Taru, Taṟu: 26 definitions

Introduction:

Taru means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

1) Taru (तरु) refers to a “tree”, as mentioned in a list of twenty-five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Taru] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

2) Taru (तरु) is the name of a tree (Nārikela) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Kṛttika, according to the same chapter. Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Viṣadru], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Taru (तरु) refers to “trees”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The dark spots, also known as ketus, the sons of Rāhu are Tāmasa, Kīlaka and the like, and are 33 in number. How they affect the earth depends upon their color, position and shape. [...] When the spots appear on the solar disc the waters will get disturbed; the sky will be filled with dust; high winds capable of breaking down the tops of mountains and of trees [i.e., taru], will carry pebbles and sand along their course”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Taru (तरु) refers to “(climbing) a tree” (in a dream), according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.8-13, while describing auspicious dreams]—“[The dreamer] crosses over the ocean and river. Likewise sunrise and indeed blazing fire [are auspicious. Also auspicious is when the dreamer] sees planets, constellations, stars and the disk of the moon. [When the dreamer] ascends the palace or a turret of the palace, climbs a mountain top, tree (taru), elephant, young animal, bull, horse, or man. [In auspicious dreams one] sees a chariot and also sees the siddhamantra, obtains the perfected oblation and sees the gods, etc. [...]”

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Taru (तरु) refers to a “tree”, according to the according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—Accordingly, as the God says to the Goddess: “[...] O fair lady, (that) venerable lady, born from my limbs, even though a virgin, will bear in her womb the one who will cause the lineage of the Śrīkula to prosper. [...] And, he will exit by means of the path (formed by the channel called) Cchiṇḍikā. Considering him to be her own son, she will give him the Command. Residing on a plank of the venerable Ciñciṇī (tree), he pierced that tree (taru) at (the goddess’s) Command (and so) he who goes by the name Ciñciṇīnātha (Lord of the Tamarind Tree) will be renowned as Vṛkṣanātha (the Lord of the Tree). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Taru (तरु) refers to a “tree” (which whither during the summer season), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the treatment of hawks]: “In summer, when the air is heated by the terrible rays of the meridian sun, the bare trees (taru) cannot afford shelter [na bhānti taravaścaiva śīrṇaparṇairanāśrayāḥ]; stormy winds surcharged with dust blow on all sides; [...] then the season, like the forest fire, becomes intolerable to these birds [i.e., hawks], [...]. Therefore cooling processes should be now resorted to”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Taru (तरु) refers to a “tree”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “[...] And even among the five-sensed beings, many belong to the animal world such as the cow, the deer, the bird, the serpent, etc. Hence human birth is as difficult of attainment as a heap of jewels at the crossing of the roads. And if one loses the condition of a human being by negligence, it is as difficult to attain it once again, as it is difficult for a burnt tree (dagdha-taru) to regain its old freshness. Even if human birth is attained, a good country, a good family, keen senses, health, etc. are more and more difficult of attainment. [...]”.

2) Taru (तरु) refers to a “tree”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Having abandoned the tree (taru), as the birds go in the early morning, in like manner the embodied souls continually go somewhere depending on their own karma”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Taru in India is the name of a plant defined with Areca catechu in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Areca cathechu Burm.f. (among others).

2) Taru is also identified with Cedrus deodara It has the synonym Cedrus libani var. deodara (Roxburgh) J.D. Hooker (etc.).

3) Taru is also identified with Erythroxylum emarginatum It has the synonym Sethia indica DC. (etc.).

4) Taru in Nepal is also identified with Hippophae rhamnoides It has the synonym Rhamnoides hippophae Moench (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· American Journal of Botany (1935)
· Étude Fl., ed. 8 (1889)
· Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalayan Mountains (1833)
· Beskrivelse af Guineeiske planter (1827)
· Flora andhrica (1859)
· Himalayan journals (1854)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Taru, for example pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, health benefits, extract dosage, side effects, chemical composition, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

taru : (m.) a tree.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Taru, (Perhaps dialect. for dāru) tree, PvA. 154 (°gaṇā), 251. (Page 298)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

taru (तरु).—m S A tree, bush, or plant.

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tārū (तारू).—m (Poetry. tara) A ferryman.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tarū (तरू).—m A tree, plant.

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tārū (तारू).—m A ferryman.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Taru (तरु).—a. [tṝ-un Uṇādi-sūtra 1.7] Protecting.

-ruḥ 1 A tree; नवसंरोहणशिथिलस्तरुरिव सुकरः समुद्धर्तुम् (navasaṃrohaṇaśithilastaruriva sukaraḥ samuddhartum) M.1.8.

2) Ved. Velocity.

3) A wooden ladle for taking up Soma.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Taru (तरु).—(?) , name of a legendary king: Mahāvastu i.188.12; 189.7; 191.12; one ms. in the first passage, three in the third, and all in the second, read Tanu; both occur as names of men in Sanskrit, but very rarely.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taru (तरु).—m.

(-ruḥ) A tree. E. tṝ to proceed, Unadi affix un, what goes or grows; or from what flowers and fruits arise, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taru (तरु).—i. e. tṛ10 + u (for original tar + van), m. A tree, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 82, 115.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taru (तरु).—1. [adjective] rash.

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Taru (तरु).—2. [masculine] tree.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Taru (तरु):—[from tara] 1. taru mfn. ‘quick’ or [substantive] ‘speediness’, ([plural]), [Ṛg-veda v, 44, 5] (cf. [ii, 39, 3]).

2) 2. taru m. ([gana] vyāghrādi [not in [Kāśikā-vṛtti]] cf. nabhas-) a tree, [Nalopākhyāna xii, 75; Rāmāyaṇa vi, 82, 115; Suśruta; Raghuvaṃśa] etc.

3) Name of a son of Manu Cākṣuṣa, [Matsya-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Taru (तरु):—(ruḥ) 2. m. A tree.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Taru (तरु) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Taru.

[Sanskrit to German]

Taru in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Taru (तरु):—(nm) a tree.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Taru (तरु) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Taru.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ṭāru (ಟಾರು):—

1) [noun] any of various dark-coloured, viscid products with pungent odour obtained from the destructive distillation of certain organic substances, as coal, peat, shale or wood, used for protecting and preserving surfaces; tar.

2) [noun] (fig.) the pitch-black colour.

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Taru (ತರು):—

1) [verb] to carry, convey, conduct or to come with, to or toward the speaker or to the place implied.

2) [verb] to cause (a person) come in or to bring along with oneself.

3) [verb] to give, offer (something) to.

4) [verb] to hold out or reach out.

5) [verb] to bring out or forth.

6) [verb] to cause to happen.

7) [verb] to decide or take a decision.

8) [verb] to cause to get married; to arrange to have close relationship as by a marriage.

9) [verb] to bring a girl or woman by marriage, as one’s wife, daughter-in-law, etc.

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Taru (ತರು):—[noun] a plant, that lives for several years, having a strong woody main stem or trunk ordinarily growing to a considerable height, and usu. developing branches at some distance from the ground; a tree.

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Tāru (ತಾರು):—

1) [verb] to become lean, thin.

2) [verb] to lose freshness, moisture; to fade; to wither.

3) [verb] to become sad; to be dejected.

4) [verb] to become reduced in quantity, number, strength, etc.; to wane.

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Tāru (ತಾರು):—[verb] to cross or pass from one side to the other.

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Tāru (ತಾರು):—[noun] a moveable bar or rod attached to the door, which fastens the door to its frame when closed.

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Tāru (ತಾರು):—

1) [noun] a message transmitted by telegraph; telegram.

2) [noun] ತಾರು ಕೊಡು [taru kodu] tāru koḍu = ತಾರು ಮಾಡು [taru madu]; ತಾರು ಮಾಡು [taru madu] tāru māḍu to send a message by telegraph; to telegraph.

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Tāru (ತಾರು):—[noun] a thick, sticky, brown to black liquid with a pungent odour, obtained by the destructive distillation of wood, coal, peat, shale, etc. used mainly in making road surfaces; tar.

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Tāṟu (ತಾಱು):—

1) [verb] to become lean, thin.

2) [verb] to lose freshness, moisture; to fade; to wither.

3) [verb] to become sad; to be dejected.

4) [verb] to become reduced in quantity, number, strength, etc.; to wane.

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Tāṟu (ತಾಱು):—[noun] that which is dry, withered, faded.

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Tāṟu (ತಾಱು):—

1) [noun] a bunch or cluster of coconuts or areca nuts.

2) [noun] a large number of persons collected at a place; a crowd.

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Tāṟu (ತಾಱು):—[noun] = ತಾಱ್ [tar]2.

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Tāṟu (ತಾಱು):—[noun] the condition that lacks order, system; derangement or which leads to confusion; disorder; jumble.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Taru (தரு) noun perhaps from தா-. [tha-.] Striking of sail; மரக் கலப்பாய் இறக்குகை. [marag kalappay irakkugai.] Nautical usage

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Taru (தரு) noun < taru.

1. Tree; மரம். தரு வனத்துள் [maram. tharu vanathul] (கம்பராமாயணம் கையடைப். [kambaramayanam kaiyadaip.] 10).

2. The kaṟpakam tree of Svarga; கற்பகவிருட்சம். தரு நிலை [karpagavirudsam. tharu nilai] (மணிமேகலை [manimegalai] 5, 114).

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Taru (தரு) noun perhaps from dhruva. [K. daruvu.]

1. A stage-song in a peculiar metre and tune; இசைப்பாட்டுவகை. [isaippattuvagai.] (இராமநாடகம் பாலகா. [iramanadagam palaga.] 3.)

2. Meaningless syllable sung to a tune as an interlude, formed of the letters த், ந், ன் [th, n, n] combined with a long or short vowel; ஒருவகைச் சந்தம். [oruvagais santham.] (W.)

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Taru (தரு) noun < தேவதாரு. [thevatharu.] Bastard sandal. See தேவதாரு. [thevatharu.] (தைலவருக்கச்சுருக்கம் தைல. [thailavarukkachurukkam thaila.] 17.)

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Taṟu (தறு) [taṟutal] 6 transitive verb [Malayalam: taṟuka.]

1. To wear tightly, as a cloth; இறுக உடுத்துதல். தெய்வ மடிதற்றுத் தான்முந் துறும் [iruga uduthuthal. theyva maditharruth thanmun thurum] (திருக்குறள் [thirukkural], 1023).

2. To fasten; கட்டுதல். தற்றுறு பூமுடி தாழ [kattuthal. tharruru pumudi thazha] (கந்தபு. நகர்பு. [kanthapu. nagarpu.] 68).

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Tāru (தாரு) noun < dāru.

1. Tree; மரம். (சூடாமணிநிகண்டு) மாதாருவன்ன சிலை [maram. (sudamaninigandu) matharuvanna silai] (கந்தபு. தாரக. [kanthapu. tharaga.] 71).

2. Branch of a tree; மரக்கிளை. (பிங்கலகண்டு) [marakkilai. (pingalagandu)]

3. Red cedar. See தேவதாரு. (தைலவருக்கச்சுருக்கம் தைல.) [thevatharu. (thailavarukkachurukkam thaila.)]

4. Piece of timber, wood; மரத்துண்டு. கொல்லிப் பாவை யினிற் றாருவமைத்த வல்லிப்பாவை [marathundu. kollip pavai yinir raruvamaitha vallippavai] (இரகுவமிசம் குசன். [iraguvamisam kusan.] 26).

5. Temporary wooden image set up in place of the stone image when the temple is renovated; கோயிலைப் பிரித்துப் புதுப்பிக்கும்போது கற்சிலைக்குப் பிரதியாகத் தாபித்த கட்டை உரு. [koyilaip pirithup puthuppikkumbothu karsilaikkup pirathiyagath thapitha kattai uru.] Local usage

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Tāṟu (தாறு) cf. தார்¹. [thar¹.] noun

1. [K. tāṟu.] Bunch, cluster, as of plantains, dates, areca nuts; வாழை முதலியவற்றின் குலை. (பிங்கலகண்டு) உழிஞ்சிற் றாறுசினை விளைந்த நெற்றம் [vazhai muthaliyavarrin kulai. (pingalagandu) uzhinchir rarusinai vilaintha nerram] (அகநா. [agana.] 151).

2. Weaver's bobbin, reel; உண்டைநூல் சுற்றுங் கருவி. (யாழ்ப்பாணத்து மானிப்பாயகராதி) [undainul surrung karuvi. (yazhppanathu manippayagarathi)]

3. Putting on a cloth in the fashion of the divided skirt; பின்கச்சக்கட்டு. [pinkachakkattu.]

4. Lines, as on the palm; இரேகை. நிழலு மடித்தாறு மானோம் [iregai. nizhalu maditharu manom] (நாலாயிர திவ்யப்பிரபந்தம் இயற். பெரியதிருவந். [nalayira thivyappirapandam iyar. periyathiruvan.] 31). — particle Until; வரையில். (பிங்கலகண்டு) இன்றுதாறுந் திரிகின்றதே [varaiyil. (pingalagandu) inrutharun thiriginrathe] (நாலாயிர திவ்யப்பிரபந்தம் இயற். திருவிருத்தம் [nalayira thivyappirapandam iyar. thiruvirutham] 46).

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Tāṟu (தாறு) noun perhaps from தறு-. [tharu-.]

1. Ox goad, sharp-pointed stick for driving oxen; முட்கோல். தாறுபாய் புரவி [mudkol. tharupay puravi] (மகாபாரதம் நிரை. [magaparatham nirai.] 94).

2. Elephant goad; அங்குசம். தாறடு களிற்றின் [angusam. tharadu kalirrin] (பத்துப்பாட்டு: குறிஞ்சிப்பாட்டு [pathuppattu: kurinchippattu] 150).

3. Sharp iron-piece at the end of a goad; தாற்றுக் கோலிலுள்ள இருப்பூசி. தாறுசேர் கோலும் [tharrug kolilulla iruppusi. tharuser kolum] (கந்தபு. சிங்கமு. [kanthapu. singamu.] 299).

4. Ends of a bow, notch; விற் குதை. (சூடாமணிநிகண்டு) [vir kuthai. (sudamaninigandu)]

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Tāṟu (தாறு) noun < English Tar; கீலெண்ணெய். [kilenney.] Pond.

context information

Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Taru (तरु):—n. tree; woody plant;

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Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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