Tambula, Tambūla, Tāmbūla: 31 definitions


Tambula means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Tambul.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to “betel leaves” and represents one of the sixteen upacāra, or “sixteen types of homage and services”, as described while explaining the mode of worshipping the phallic form (liṅga) of Śiva in the Śivapurāṇa 1.11. Accordingly, “[...] the devotee shall worship the mobile emblem with the sixteen types of homage and services (upacāra) as prescribed. It accords the region of Śiva gradually. The sixteen types of service are [for example, betel leaves (tāmbūla)] [...] Or he shall perform all the sixteen rites in the phallic emblem of human, saintly or godly origin, or in one naturally risen up (svayambhū) or in one of very extraordinary nature installed duly”.

Tāmbūla (betel leaves) forms a preferable constituent for a great offering, according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.16. Accordingly, “[...] the great offering of eatables shall be made to Śiva especially in the month of Dhanus. The constituent parts of the great offering are as follows:—[...] betal leaves (tāmbūla) [...] This great offering of eatables made to the deities shall be distributed among devotees m the order of their castes”.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to “betel leaves”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Tāmbūla is recommended as offerings for the spectators of a dramatic performance (verse 864). Kalhaṇa also testifies to their popularity. Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल).—Offered to Hari in Payovrata.1 Offered by the merchants of Mathurā to Kṛṣṇa and his brother;2 used by Trivakrā before she met Kṛṣṇa;3 offered to Brahmana ladies, who were not widows, in the Devi temple just before the marriage of Rukmiṇī;4 given by Kṛṣṇa to Brahmanas;5 offered to Kucela by Kṛṣṇa;6 offered to Hari by Indrasena;7 to be offered to Tripurasundari during worship.8

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 16. 41.
  • 2) Ib. X. 42. 13.
  • 3) Ib. X. 48. 5.
  • 4) Ib. X. 53. 48; 61. 6.
  • 5) Ib. X. 70. 13: 73. 26.
  • 6) Ib. X. 80. 22.
  • 7) Ib. X. 85. 37; XI. 27. 43.
  • 8) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 43. 13.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) or Mukhavāsa refers to “betel leaves, nuts and other mouth fresheners” and represents one of the various upacāras (offerings), in pūjā (ritual worship), as defined in the Śaivāgamas.—Pūjā consists of offering hospitality, in the form of water to wash the feet, to drink, water for ablutions, offering a bath, new clothes, fragrant unguents, fragrant flowers and ornaments, food and so on. Each step in the pūjā process is called “saṃskāra” and each offering is called “upacāra” [viz., Tāmbūla].

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to “betel leaves”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Visualisation of Parameśvara]:—[...] He is adorned with nice anklets, armlets, rings and bracelets, and he shines with small toe rings, channahīras, etc., and diadems and a crown. His face is gracious, beautiful, his lips are smeared with betel leaves (tāmbūla). His mind is filled with the joy of wine, and his body is supreme bliss [itself]. [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to “betel leaf”, according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.3-6, while describing the interpretation of dreams]—“In [auspicious] dreams [the dreamer] drinks wine, eats raw flesh, smears insect feces and sprinkles blood. He eats food of sour milk and smears a white garment. [He holds] a white umbrella over his head, decorates [himself] with a white garland or ribbon. [He sees] a throne, chariot or vehicle, the flag of royal initiation. He decorates [these things] with a coral, betel leaf fruit (tāmbūlatāmbūlaṃ phalameva ca). [He also] sees Śrī or Sarasvatī”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Tambula [ತಾಂಬೂಲ] in the Kannada language is the name of a plant identified with Piper betle L. from the Piperaceae (Pepper) family having the following synonyms: Piper chawya, Piper malamiris, Piper densum. For the possible medicinal usage of tambula, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Tambula [ताम्बूल] in the Sanskrit language, ibid. previous identification.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to “betel leaf” as mentioned in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Betel leaves are generally chewed with areca-nut and limestone powder. [...] According to Bhojanakutūhala, betel chewing is advisable after waking up from the sleep, after the meal and after vomiting. It is also advisable for a person who proceeds for a battle or a scholarly assemblies.

According to Bhojanakutūhala, betel chewing is not good for the following persons:

  1. those who are afflicted with the disorders related to blood, eye, heart and urine.
  2. those who are wounded, tired, poisoned, weak because of fasting and unconscious.
  3. those who have drunk milk.
  4. those who have psychological problems.
  5. those who are suffering from diabetes, jaundice, tuberculosis, fits, leprosy and dysentery.

Overuse of betel leads to leucopathia, physical weakness and ophthalmic disorders. [...] Certain parts of betel leaves (tāmbūla) should be avoided. Diseases dwell in the tip of betel leaf. Chewing root of betel plant will lead one towards sins. Scrolled betel leaf shortens lifespan. The veins which run across the betel leaf destroy intellect. Thus the tip, root of betel plant and the centre of the betel leaf should be avoided as eating these parts will be harmful to one’s life, fame and prosperity.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Piper betle Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning tāmbūla] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to:—Betel nut. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to the “betel-nut” and represents one of the various Bhoga (foodstuffs), according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—While ringing the bell and chanting the following mantras, offer the bhoga as indicated: Viz., idaṃ tāmbūlaṃ śrīṃ klīṃ rādhā-kṛṣṇābhyāṃ namaḥ—“offer water [from the pañca-pātra] into the throw-out pot [to signify the offering of tāmbūla].”.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to:—(Also, Pān) Betel leaf; a preparation of betel leaves with lime, catechu, and other spices, which is chewed as a refreshment. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to the “betel”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 12), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “When star Canopus reappears after its conjunction with the Sun, waters muddled by their contact with the earth will resume their original clearness just in the same way as the minds of the Sādhus naturally recover their original purity after contact with the wicked. The autumn is attended by the Cakravāka on both its sides (i.e., beginning and end); in it is heard the music of the swan; and its opening is marked by the beautiful red sky; in all these respects the season resembles a woman with a rising bosom, sounding jewels and betel-coloured [i.e., tāmbūla-rakta] mouth”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Tambula in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to “betel”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 225-226).—Accordingly, while describing the shire of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, “[Then follows the image of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, which matches the conception of Kālarātri in the passage from the Mahābhārata:] [...] she bore the coquettish apparel of a woman going out to meet Mahākāla at night, with a vine-like body furnished with a raiment reddened with saffron-dye, with a face with red eyes, whose brows were furrowed into a frown, whose lip was crimsoned with betel that was blood (rudhira-tāmbūla), whose cheeks were reddened by the light shed from ear-ornaments of pomegranate flowers, with a forehead on which there was a tilaka dot of vermillion made by a Śabara beauty, covered by a magnificent gold turban. She was worshipped by goats... mice... antelope and black serpents... She was praised on all sides by flocks of old crows; [...]”.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: ACHC: Smarta Puja

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) refers to the “offering of betel”, representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—After the meal betel (tāmbūla, i.e. a piece of areca nut and other ingredients wrapped in two betel leaves) is given to scent the mouth. The offering of betel after a meal is not mentioned in ancient Gṛhyasūtras and Dharmasūtras.

Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Tambula in India is the name of a plant defined with Areca catechu in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Areca himalayana Griff. ex H. Wendl. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Taxon (1979)
· Flora Cochinchinensis (1790)
· Nucleus (1975)
· Species Plantarum. (1805)
· Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine (2007)
· Hist. Nat. Palm. (1836)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Tambula, for example diet and recipes, health benefits, extract dosage, side effects, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Tambula in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

tambūla : (nt.) betel-leaf.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Tambūla, (nt.) (Sk. tambūla) betel or betel-leaves (to chew after the meal) J. I, 266, 291; II, 320; Vism. 314; DhA. III, 219. —°pasibbaka betel-bag J. VI, 367. (Page 297)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tāmbūla (तांबूल).—m S pop. tāmbūḷa m A viḍā or roll of the leaf of Piper betel, with areca-nut, lime, cardamoms &c.

--- OR ---

tāmbūla (तांबूल).—n R Commonly tāmbalī or tāmbalēṃ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tāmbūla (तांबूल).—m A roll of the leaf of Piper- betel, with areca-nut, lime, cardamoms, &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल).—

1) The areca-nut.

2) The leaf of piperbetel, which together with the areca-nut, catechu, chunam, and spices is usually chewed after meals; ताम्बूलभृतगल्लोऽयं भल्लं जल्पति मानुषः (tāmbūlabhṛtagallo'yaṃ bhallaṃ jalpati mānuṣaḥ) K. P.7; रागो न स्खलित- स्तवाधरपुटे ताम्बूलसंवर्धितः (rāgo na skhalita- stavādharapuṭe tāmbūlasaṃvardhitaḥ) Ś. Til.7.

Derivable forms: tāmbūlam (ताम्बूलम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल).—nf. (-la-lī) 1. Areca, (Areca faufel or catechu.) 2. Betel, (Piber betel,) or its pungent leaf, which together with the areca nut and catechu, and sometimes caustic lime and spices, is eaten very generally by the natives of the east. n.

(-laṃ) The areca nut. m.

(-laḥ) San, a plant, (Crotolaria juncea.) E. tam to desire, affix ūlac and vuk augment, the radical vowel made long.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल).—n. and f. , Betel, Piper betel, Lin. [Suśruta] 1, 223, 2; [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 48.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल).—[neuter] betel (also [feminine] ī), [especially] its leaf.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल):—m. (= Prākṛt °bôla [from] tāmragula) = bala, [Horace H. Wilson]

2) n. betel, ([especially]) its pungent and aromatic leaf (chewed with the areca-nut and catechu and sometimes caustic lime and spices as a carminative and antacid tonic), [Harivaṃśa 8454 and 8457; Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

3) the areca-nut, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल):—[(laṃ-lī)] 1. n. 3. f. Areca; betel. n. The areca nut. m. The San plant (Crotolaria juncea).

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Tāmbūla (ताम्बूल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Taṃbola.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tambula in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Tambula in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Tāṃbūla (तांबूल) [Also spelled tambul]:—(nm) a betel.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Taṃbula (ತಂಬುಲ):—

1) [noun] the cooked, husked areca nut.

2) [noun] a preparation of betal leaves, arecanut and lime, made for chewing.

3) [noun] betal leaf (or leaves) chewed with areca nut and lime.

4) [noun] an old tax levied on persons dealing with betal leaves or its preparations.

5) [noun] ತಂಬುಲ ತಿನ್ನು [tambula tinnu] tambula tinnu to eat the leavings in the plate dined by another; 2. (fig.) to plead for money or to serve another abjectly for money at the cost of one’s self-respect; to behave obsequiously; to cringe; ತಂಬುಲದೆಲೆ [tambuladele] tambuladele a betal leaf used for chewing.

--- OR ---

Tāṃbula (ತಾಂಬುಲ):—[noun] = ತಾಂಬೂಲ [tambula].

--- OR ---

Tāṃbuḷa (ತಾಂಬುಳ):—[noun] = ತಾಂಬೂಲ [tambula].

--- OR ---

Tāṃbūla (ತಾಂಬೂಲ):—

1) [noun] the cooked and husked areca nut.

2) [noun] a betal leaf.

3) [noun] a preparation of betel leaves, arecanut, for chewing.

4) [noun] a man who makes this preparation.

--- OR ---

Tāṃbūḷa (ತಾಂಬೂಳ):—[noun] = ತಾಂಬೂಲ [tambula].

--- OR ---

Tāṃbūḻa (ತಾಂಬೂೞ):—[noun] = ತಾಂಬೂಲ [tambula].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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