Surata, Sūrata, Su-rata, Suratā, Shurata: 20 definitions


Surata means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Suratā (सुरता).—A celestial damsel, daughter of Kaśyapaprajāpati by his wife Pradhā. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 50). She gave a dance performance at the birthday celebrations of Arjuna. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 63).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Surata (सुरत) refers to “mutual sexual intercourse”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.5.—Accordingly, after Goddess Śivā (i.e., Umā/Durgā) granted a boon to Menā:—“Saying so, the Goddess Śivā vanished from there even as Menā was watching. [...] She told her husband about the boon, which had already been understood by him through good omens, by her words which were rendered useless. On hearing the words of Menā, the lord of mountains became delighted. He praised his wife who was devoted to Śiva lovingly. O sage, when their mutual sexual intercourse [i.e., surata] took place, Menā conceived and the child in the womb gradually grew up. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Tessitori Collection I (hinduism)

Sūrata (सूरत) or “Sūrata Miśra” is the author of the Amaracandrikā (dealing with Poetics and Erotics), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—Sūrata (or Sūrati) Miśra was a Brahman of Agra who has at least ten works to his credit, several of which testify to his sustained interest in poetics, understood as rhetorical figures (alaṃkāra), classification of female characters in relation to love (nāyikābheda) and esthetics (rasa). This trend is illustrated by his commentaries on Keśavdās’s Kavipriyā and Rasikapriyā, and by the present work which was composed in VS 1794 = 1737 century.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Surata (सुरत) is the name of a Tathāgata (Buddha) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Surata).

Source: Google Books: An Illustrated History of the Mandala

Surata (सुरत, “pleasure”) refers to one of the Seventeen Viśuddhipadas (“stations of purity”) and is associated with the deity Vajrasattva, according to the Prajñāpāramitānayasūtra: an ancient Buddhist Tantric text recited daily in the Japanese Shingon sect which is closely related to the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha.—The visualization of the seventeen-deity maṇḍala, representing the deification of the seventeen Viśuddhipadas [e.g., surata], was thought to facilitate the attainment of enlightenment through the sublimation of the defilements into the mind of enlightenment (bodhicitta).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

surata : (adj.) well-loving; devoted; attached. || sūratā (f.), valour.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sūrata, (=surata) soft, mild J. VI, 286; Mhbv 75; kindly disposed S. IV, 305. Cp. surata & sorata. (Page 722)

— or —

Surata, (adj.) (su+rata) (in good sense: ) well-loving, devoted: see soracca; (in bad sense: ) sexual intercourse, thus wrongly for soracca at J. III, 442 C. , with explanation as “dussīlya. ” Cp. sūrata. (Page 720)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

surata (सुरत).—f (surāṣṭra S Good territory or region.) The city and province of Surat.

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surata (सुरत).—n S Congress of the sexes.

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surata (सुरत).—f ī or ē ( A) The countenance, visage, features, face. suratēcā bhalā kamarēcā ḍhilā Used of a man or an animal of fine and handsome appearance but without vigor or strength.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

suraṭa (सुरट).—m n A hairy kind of caterpillar.

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surata (सुरत).—f The countenance. The city and province of surata.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sūrata (सूरत).—a.

1) Kindly-disposed, compassionate, tender.

2) Calm, tranquil.

-tā A tractable cow.

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Sūrata (सूरत).—a.

1) Compassionate, tender.

2) Tranquil, calm.

-tā A tractable cow.

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Surata (सुरत).—a.

1) much sported.

2) playful.

3) much enjoyed.

4) compassionate, tender. (-tam) 1 great delight or enjoyment.

2) copulation, sexual union or intercourse, coition; सुरतमृदिता बालवनिता (suratamṛditā bālavanitā) Bhartṛhari 2. 44. °गुरुः (guruḥ) the husband; पर्यच्छे सरसि हृतेंऽशुके पयोभिर्लोलाक्षे सुरतगुरावपत्रपिष्णोः (paryacche sarasi hṛteṃ'śuke payobhirlolākṣe suratagurāvapatrapiṣṇoḥ) Śiśupālavadha 8.46. °ताण्डवम् (tāṇḍavam) vigorous sexual movements; अद्यापि तां सुरतताण्डवसूत्रधारीं (adyāpi tāṃ suratatāṇḍavasūtradhārīṃ) (smarāmi) Bil. Ch. Uttara.28. °ताली (tālī)

1) a female messenger, a go-between.

2) a chaplet, garland for the head. °प्रसंगः (prasaṃgaḥ) addiction to amorous pleasures; कालक्रमेणाथ योः प्रवृत्ते स्वरूपयोग्ये सुरत- प्रसंगे (kālakrameṇātha yoḥ pravṛtte svarūpayogye surata- prasaṃge) Kumārasambhava 1.19.

Surata is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and rata (रत).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Surata (सुरत).—adj. (= sūrata, q.v.; meter probably not con-cerned; su° noted either in prose or in metrical(ly) indifferent places in verses), gentle, mild; associated with kṣānti: Mahāvastu ii.368.2; 371.8; 355.21 = iii.280.6 (all verses; Senart always sū°, but mss. su° except one v.l. ii.355.21); with sukha- saṃvāsa, q.v., Sukhāvatīvyūha 25.15; 61.7 (both prose).

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Sūrata (सूरत).—adj. (also surata, q.v., and compare sauratya; = Pali sūrata, oftener sorata; usually in verses, but sometimes prose, and sometimes where meter does not determine quantity of the ū; the word is no doubt orig. a [compound] of su-and rata, tho in a sense not known to Sanskrit, except both su° and sū° in Sanskrit Lex.; Leumann's [etymology], ap. Wogihara, Lex. aus der Bodhisattvabhūmi., from sūnṛta, whence *sūrṇta, then sūrata, as if proto-IE., is absurd), gentle, mild, frequent as epithet of Buddha: Mahāvyutpatti 2360 = Tibetan des pa, defined fine, brave, noble, chaste; this word is the regular Tibetan for this and sauratya, but in Śikṣāsamuccaya 196.2 Tibetan according to note in ed. dul, gentle; Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 46.3; Lalitavistara 170.22; 178.19; 193.10; Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 10.14; 13.5; 37.17; Kāśyapa Parivarta 107.26; Gaṇḍavyūha 480.6; followed by sukhasaṃvāsa, q.v., Mahāvastu ii.357.12; Daśabhūmikasūtra 40.7 (prose).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śūratā (शूरता).—f.

(-tā) Heroism, prowess. E. tal added to śūra; also with tva, śūratvaṃ .

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Surata (सुरत).—mfn.

(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) 1. Compassionate, tender. 2. Playful. 3. Much enjoyed. n.

(-taṃ) 1. Copulation, coition. 2. Great enjoyment. f.

(-tā) Godhead, divinity. E. su well, ram to sport or play, aff. kta; or sura a deity, and tal aff. of state or condition.

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Sūrata (सूरत).—mfn.

(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) 1. Compassionate, tender. 2. Tranquil, calm. E. su well. ram to sport or rest, kta Unadi aff., and the vowel of the prefix made long; also surata .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śūratā (शूरता).—[śūra + tā], f. Prowess, heroism, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 44.

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Sūrata (सूरत).—i. e. su-rata (see ram), adj. 1. Compassionate, tender. 2. Calm, tranquil.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śūratā (शूरता).—[feminine] tva [neuter] boldness, heroism.

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Surata (सुरत).—[neuter] great delight, [especially] amorous pleasure, sexual intercourse.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śūratā (शूरता):—[=śūra-tā] [from śūra > sūr] f.

2) Surata (सुरत):—[=su-rata] [from su > su-yaj] a mfn. sporting, playful, [Uṇādi-sūtra v, 14 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

3) [v.s. ...] compassionate, tender, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a mendicant, [Buddhist literature]

5) Suratā (सुरता):—[=su-ratā] [from su-rata > su > su-yaj] a f. a wife, [Harivaṃśa] ([Scholiast or Commentator])

6) [v.s. ...] Name of an Apsaras, [Mahābhārata]

7) Surata (सुरत):—[=su-rata] [from su > su-yaj] n. great joy or delight, [ib.]

8) [v.s. ...] n. (ifc. f(ā). ) amorous or sexual pleasure or intercourse, coition, [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

9) Suratā (सुरता):—[=sura-tā] [from sura > sur] b f. godhead, [Mahābhārata]

10) [v.s. ...] the rice of gods, [Catalogue(s)]

11) Surata (सुरत):—[=su-rata] b etc. See p. 1232, col. 1.

12) Sūrata (सूरत):—[=sū-rata] mfn. (for su-r) well disposed towards, compassionate, tender, [Uṇādi-sūtra v, 14]

13) [v.s. ...] tranquil, calm, [ib.]

14) Sūratā (सूरता):—[=sū-ratā] [from sū-rata] f. a tractable cow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śūratā (शूरता):—(tā) 1. f. Heroism.

2) Surata (सुरत):—[su-rata] (taṃ) 1. n. Copulation. 1. f. Divinity. a. Tender, kind.

3) Sūrata (सूरत):—[(taḥ-tā-taṃ) a.] Compassionate, tender, tranquil.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Surata (सुरत) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Suraya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Surata in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Sūrata (सूरत) [Also spelled surat]:—(nf) countenance, face; appearance, looks; form; case; condition, state; ~[parasta] a beauty-worshipper, a hanker after looks; ~[vālā] beautiful, good-looking; -[śakla] appearance; looks; -[sīrata] beauty and quality; looks and merits; ~[harāma] of deceptive looks; [sūrata(e)hāla] present state/condition; —[dikhānā] to show up, to turn up; —[najara ānā] to find a way out, to think of a solution (to a problem); —[nikala ānā] to grow prettier; a solution (to a problem) to emerge; —[badalanā] to disguise; things to change; —[bigā- ḍanā] to deface; to make wry faces; to express displeasure; —[meṃ isa] in this case; —[se bejāra honā] not to be able to stand the sight of; to be absolutely fed up of; —[se sīrata kā aṃdāja nahīṃ hotā] beauty is but skin deep, all that glitters is not gold.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Surata (ಸುರತ):—[noun] sexual intercourse; coition.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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