Somasiddhanta, Soma-siddhanta, Somasiddhānta: 8 definitions


Somasiddhanta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous (S) next»] — Somasiddhanta in Shaivism glossary
Source: Kāpālikas

Somasiddhānta (सोमसिद्धान्त).—Soma, Saumya, or Somasiddhāntin (follower or the doctrine of Soma [somasiddhānta]) were alternative names for nontantric or pretantric Kāpālikas. An early agamic Śaiva scripture, the Sarvajñānottara (14.4), places promulgators of the Somasiddhānta in its cosmic hierarchy just above the Pāśupatas and the Lākulas (mahāvratas), at the level of Īśvara; the Pāśupatas reach only up to the level of plurality (māyā), and the Lākulas to knowledge (vidyā). Somasiddhāntins are commonly mentioned next to Lākulas in Śaiva tantric sources, as in the Jayadrathayāmala (1.45.83), which lists the Somasiddhānta observance next to the Kālamukha one, or in the (unpublished) Kaula Bhairavamaṅgalā, which lists the Somasiddhānta doctrine after the Lākula.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous (S) next»] — Somasiddhanta in Kavya glossary
Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Somasiddhānta (सोमसिद्धान्त) is explained by the commentators as Kāpālikadarśana (or the doctrine of the Kāpāliks), and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 10.87.—Kṣīrasvāin in his commentary on Amara 2.7.50 quotes some verses in which a Kāpālika is called Somasiddhāntin.

The word Somasiddhānta means literally “the doctrine of Soma or Śiva”. Soma is frequently used in the sense of Śiva in the Purāṇas, and Prabodhacandrodaya describes Somasiddhānta as Pārameśvara (i.e. Śaiva) Siddhānta. In one verse of the play the Kāpālika theory of salvation is, in fact, attributed to Śiva. Somasiddhānta is thus an offshoot of the Śaiva system, [...].

1) Somasiddhānta is one of the characters in Kṛṣṇamiśra’s Prabodhacandrodaya (Act 3), and we get a good idea of its tenets from the latter work. Somasiddhānta is here represented as a Kāpālika who describes himself as a votary of the Mahābhairava form of Śiva. The latter is worshipped with human sacrifice; oblations of human flesh are made in the fire, and the worshipper drinks wine from a human skull (3.13). The Kāpālika boasts of extraordinary magical feats, and it is claimed that his doctrine facilitates the attainment of the eight superhuman powers known as Mahāsiddhis (3.22). So far as doctrine is concerned, the world, according to the Somasiddhānta, though full of diversities, is identical with Śiva; and he who has obtained salvation assumes the form of Śiva and sports with a mistress beautiful like Pārvatī (3.16).

2) Somasiddhānta appears as a character in another allegorical drama, the Vidyāpariṇayana of Ānandarāyamakhin, composed in the first half of the seventeenth century, and here, too, it is represented by a drunken Kāpālika. Questioned about his idea of religion, of heaven and of salvation, he replies that Mahābhairava, pleased with human sacrifices and wine, grants the worshipper Sārūpya or a form similar to his own, the summum bonum being salvation without discarding the body. As to heaven, it is a place where all desires are satsfied and the nejoyment of sensual pleasure unrestricted by any limit.

3) Somasiddhānta is personified also in Gokulanātha’s philosophical drama Amṛtodaya written in 1693. Vardhamāna, the well-nkwon commentator on Udayana’s Nyāyakusumāñjali, is here described as fighting and killing Somasiddhānta, also called Somatantra, the driend of the Cārvāka. When Somasiddhānta is put to the sword, his associates or patrons Kāpālika, Nīlalohita, Mahābhairava, Bhūtaḍāmara, Umā, Maheśvara and others flee from the battle.

[...] There is at least one text in which the Kāpāla and Soma [Somasiddhānta] systems are mentioned separately. We find in the Sūtasaṃhitā belonging to Skandapurāṇa that the Kāpāla, Pāśupata and Soma systems are referred to separately, which shows that the Soma system was not always regarded as identical with the Kāpāla school.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous (S) next»] — Somasiddhanta in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Indian National Science Academy: Annual Report 2015-16 (astronomy)

Somasiddhānta (सोमसिद्धान्त) (before 7th Century A.D.) is an important astronomical treatise containing ten chapters (three hundred thirty five verses) described by Candra to sage Saunaka. Analysing these verses and comparing with the other texts it can be concluded that Somasiddhānta existed before the time of Brahmagupta. In Brahmagupta’s monumental work Brāhmasphutasiddhānta (XXIV), we get the reference “sūryendu – pulisa – romaka – vasisthyavanādhyaih”; which explains all the existing systems. [...] After thorough study of Somasiddhānta, it can be concluded that this text belongs to the school of Sūryasiddhānta composed before 7th Century AD. No writer’s name is found in any manuscript.

The first chapter [of the Somasiddhānta] starts with the dialogue between Candra and Sage Saunaka. Candra introduces mean positions of the planets, time of revolutions, time divisions, concepts of intercalary months, the omitted lunar days, the sidereal, lunar and civil days, the number of revolutions in a kalpa etc. Chapter two, deals with the method of computing true places of the planets from their mean positions. Chapter three deals with the application of gnomon, shadow, karaṇi (surds) and conceptual basis of agriyā [?]. Chapter four discusses the cause of lunar eclipse in 29 verses giving details of the time of eclipse, percentage of darkness over the moon, time of first contact and last contact, etc. Chapter five, deals with the projection of eclipses. ‘Parilekha’ means the projection map of the eclipse. Chapter six, deals with the conjunction of planets and stars. Chapter seven explains the knowledge of risings and settings of the heavenly bodies especially of planets of inferior brilliancy. It deals with rise and set of Svāti, Agastya, Mṛgavāadha, Citrā, Jyesthā, Punarvasu, Abhijit, Brahmahṛdaya etc. Chapter eight is named as sṛgnnoatyadhikārah[?], consisting of only eight verses, deals with moon’s rising and setting and of the elevation of its cusps. Chapter nine deals with pāta (fault); when the moon and the sun are opposite sides of either solstice and their minutes of declination are the same, it is vyātipāta. Chapter ten, the longest among all, discusses different contemporary knowledge like geography, cosmogony etc. Golādhyāya consists of previous knowledge as Āryabhaṭīyam, Laghu Bhāskariya, Mahā Bhāskariya etc.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Somasiddhanta in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sōmasiddhānta (सोमसिद्धांत).—m S A system of theological philosophy followed by a branch of the worshipers of Shiva. 2 A rationalist of the sect śaiva.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Somasiddhanta in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Somasiddhānta (सोमसिद्धान्त).—the doctrine of Kāpālikas; या सोमसिद्धान्तमयाननेव (yā somasiddhāntamayānaneva) N.1.87.

Derivable forms: somasiddhāntaḥ (सोमसिद्धान्तः).

Somasiddhānta is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms soma and siddhānta (सिद्धान्त).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Somasiddhānta (सोमसिद्धान्त).—m.

(-ntaḥ) 1. One of the Bud'dhas. 2. A rationalist of a sect of Saivas. 3. A particular doctrine, a system of theological philosophy, followed by a branch of the worshippers of Siva. E. soma the moon, (as the teacher of the doctrine,) and siddhānta truth, (whose.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Somasiddhānta (सोमसिद्धान्त) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—jy. L. 1904. Ben. 28. Oppert. 8363. Ii, 4227. 5077. Rice. 38. Peters. 2, 195.
—[commentary] by Viśvanātha. Np. I, 150.
—communicated by Soma to Śaunaka. W. p. 233. Cambr. 30. Burnell. 76^a.
—astrol. by Siddhāntabhaṭṭācārya. Io. 1492.

2) Somasiddhānta (सोमसिद्धान्त):—jy. Stein 177.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Somasiddhānta (सोमसिद्धान्त):—[=soma-siddhānta] [from soma] m. a [particular] heretical Tantra system (followed by a sect of Śaivas and personified in the 3rd Act of the Prabodha-candrôdaya), [Prabodha-candrodaya]

2) [v.s. ...] Name of various astronomical works, [Catalogue(s)]

3) [v.s. ...] of a [particular] Buddha, [ib.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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