Shyamaka, Śyāmāka, Śyāmaka, Śyāmākā: 21 definitions


Shyamaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śyāmāka and Śyāmaka and Śyāmākā can be transliterated into English as Syamaka or Shyamaka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Śyāmāka (श्यामाक) refers an inferior variety of rice, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The discussions on rice can be seen only in post-Ṛgvedic literature. [...] According to Suśruta, among the vrīhi rice the black variety, which is called kṛṣṇavrīhi, was popular. Ṣaṣṭika rice was considered very nourishing and its daily use is also recommended in the text. Some inferior varieties of rice such as koradūṣaka, śyāmāka, nīvāra, varaka and priyaṅgu were used by the poor people and ascetics.

Śyāmāka is classified as a type of grain (dhānya) in the section on tṛṇadhānya (grassy grains) in the Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—Tṛṇadhānya-prakaraṇa discusses the varieties and properties of grassy grains such as kaṅgu (foxtail millet), kadrava (kodo millet), śyāmāka, varaka and kurī (common millet).

Śyāmāka (Panicum miliaceum) is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., śyāmāka (Panicum miliaceum)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., mantha (calotropis or a liquid in combination with fried rice and ghee)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śyāmāka (श्यामाक) is a Sanskrit word referring to Panicum Frumentaceum (Indian barnyard millet). It is a type of “awned grain” (śūkadhānya), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The word is derived from śyāmaka (‘dark-coloured’) which is derived from śyāma (‘black’ or ‘dark’). The plant Śyāmāka is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Śyāmāka (just like Koradūṣa) is said to be astringent-sweet and light in character. It aggravates vāta and alleviates kapha and pitta. It is cold, constipating and absorbent.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Shyamaka in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Śyāmaka (श्यामक).—A son of Śūra by Māriṣā. (Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Śyāmaka (श्यामक).—A son of Devamīḍha and Māriṣā; married Śūrabhū and had two sons, Harikeśa and Hiraṇyākṣa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 29 and 42.

2) Śyāmāka (श्यामाक).—Fit for śrāddha.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 15. 35.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Śyāmāka (श्यामाक) refers to one of the seven forest-products that are fit for oblation according to verse 25.59 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā, dealing with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits (kuṇḍa). Accordingly, “bamboo (veṇu), śyāmāka, nīvāra (wild gram), jartila, gavīdhuka, karkaṭa and kanaka are the seven which grow in the forest. Śāli is important among them. Others are to be taken in its absence, or that of others”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śyāmākā (श्यामाका) refers to a country belonging to “Uttaratas or Uttaradeśa (northern division)” classified under the constellations of Śatabhiṣaj, Pūrvabhādrapada and Uttarabhādrapada, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Śatabhiṣaj, Pūrvabhādrapada and Uttarabhādrapada represent the northern division consisting of [i.e., Śyāmākā] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Śyāmāka (श्यामाक) is the name of a cultivated millet (Panicum frumentaceum) in the later Saṃhitās and the Brāhmaṇas. The lightness of its seed is alluded to in the Atharvaveda, where it is spoken of as blown away by the wind. There it is also mentioned as the food of pigeons. The Śyāmāka and its seed (Taṇḍula) are referred to as very small in the Chāndogya-upaniṣad, where Max Müller renders it as ‘canary seed’.

Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Syamaka in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Echinochloa frumentacea Link from the Poaceae (Grass) family having the following synonyms: Panicum crus-galli var. edule. For the possible medicinal usage of syamaka, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Shyamaka in India is the name of a plant defined with Echinochloa frumentacea in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Panicum crusgalli L. (among others).

2) Shyamaka is also identified with Setaria italica It has the synonym Panicum italicum L. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Gentes Herbarum; occasional papers on the kind of plants (1923)
· Novosti Sistematiki Vysshikh Rastenii (1968)
· Grasses of Burma (1960)
· Anais da Faculdade de Sciencias do Porto (1934)
· Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon (1900)
· Bonn. Fl. Compl. (1932)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Shyamaka, for example pregnancy safety, chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, side effects, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śyāmāka (श्यामाक).—m S A grain, Panicum frumentaceum: also P. colonum.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śyāmaka (श्यामक).—

1) A kind of edible grain (kaṅgu).

2) A gramineous plant.

-kam A kind of grass; cf. श्यामाक (śyāmāka).

Derivable forms: śyāmakaḥ (श्यामकः).

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Śyāmāka (श्यामाक).—A kind of grain or corn; (na) श्यामाकमुष्टिपरिवर्धितको जहाति (śyāmākamuṣṭiparivardhitako jahāti) Ś.4.13 (also śyāmaka).

Derivable forms: śyāmākaḥ (श्यामाकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śyāmāka (श्यामाक).—name of a son of the minister Hiru(ka): Divyāvadāna 575.25 ff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śyāmaka (श्यामक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A sort of grain, (Panicum frumentaceum, &c.) E. śyāmā the same, kan added, m. form.

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Śyāmāka (श्यामाक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A kind of grain generally eaten by the Hindus, (Panicum frumentaceum; also P. colonum.) E. śyāmā the same, kan added and the final retained.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śyāmāka (श्यामाक).— (cf. śyāma), m. A sort of grain, Panicum frumentaceum, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 89.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śyāmaka (श्यामक).—[adjective] dark-coloured; [masculine] a man’s name; [feminine] mikā blackness, impurity.

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Śyāmāka (श्यामाक).—[masculine] a kind of millet, [adjective] śyāmaka prepared of it.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śyāmaka (श्यामक):—[from śyāma] mfn. dark-coloured, dark, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

2) [v.s. ...] m. Panicum Frumentaceum (a kind of cultivated millet), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] a gramineous plant, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a man [gana] bidādi

5) [v.s. ...] of a brother of Vasu-deva, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] a [patronymic] [gana] bidādi ([plural] [gana] gopa-vanādi)

7) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a People, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

8) [from śyāma] n. a kind of grass, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) Śyāmāka (श्यामाक):—[from śyāma] m. a kind of cultivated millet (Panicum Frumentaceum; [plural] grains of it), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Divyāvadāna]

11) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a people, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

12) [v.s. ...] mf(ī)n. made of Pan° Frum° [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; ???; Mahābhārata]

13) [v.s. ...] m. a [patronymic] [gana] vidādi

14) [v.s. ...] gopa-vanādi ([plural])

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śyāmaka (श्यामक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A sort of grain.

2) Śyāmāka (श्यामाक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A kind of grain.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śyāmāka (श्यामाक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Sāmaya, Sāmāga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shyamaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śyāmaka (ಶ್ಯಾಮಕ):—[adjective] = ಶ್ಯಾಮ [shyama]1.

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Śyāmaka (ಶ್ಯಾಮಕ):—[noun] = ಶ್ಯಾಮ [shyama]2 - 9, 10, 11 & 12.

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Śyāmāka (ಶ್ಯಾಮಾಕ):—[noun] = ಶ್ಯಾಮ [shyama]2 - 9, 10, 11 & 12.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

[«previous next»] — Shyamaka in Nepali glossary
Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Śyāmaka (श्यामक):—n. Bot. little millet;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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