Shumbha, Sumbha, Śumbha: 18 definitions


Shumbha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śumbha can be transliterated into English as Sumbha or Shumbha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Śumbha (शुम्भ).—An asura. (See under Niśumbha).

2) Sumbha (सुम्भ).—An asura; the eldest of the three sons, more powerful than Indra, born to Kāśyapaprajāpati by his wife Danu, the other two sons being Niśumbha and Namuci. (For details see under Niśumbha).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śumbha (शुम्भ).—A commander of Tāraka's force; had the sheep for his riding animal;1 threw darts on Janārdana; a Citrayodhi against Janārdana who threw bhusuṇḍi at him and his goat and said “you are to be killed by a girl; get away;”2 killed by Durgā;3 killed by Yoganidrā.4

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 148, 43, 55; 151. 5.
  • 2) Ib. 150. 224; 152. 25-52; 245. 32.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 29. 76.
  • 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 82.

1b) A son of Ganeṣṭhi.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 77.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Sumbha. A Pacceka Buddha. M.iii.70; ApA.i.106.

2. Sumbha. A country in which was Desaka (?), where Udayi visited the Buddha during a stay there, and had a conversation with him. S.v.89; cf. 168, and J.i.393; also SA.iii.181.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Sumbha (सुम्भ) refers to one of the male Vidyā-beings mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Sumbha).

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

1) Sumbhā (सुम्भा) refers to one of the ten Goddesses of the Vajratārāmaṇḍala belonging to Vajratārā: one of the various emanations of Ratnasambhava, as mentioned in the 5th-century Sādhanamālā (a collection of sādhana texts that contain detailed instructions for rituals).—Accordingly, the sādhana further says that the Guardians of the Gates should also be meditated upon as around the principal Goddess, but apparently not in the same circle with the [four cardinal Goddess]:—“Goddess Sumbhā occupies the lower regions”.

All these Goddesses [viz., Sumbhā] stand on the orb of the sun in the ālīḍha attitude with the right leg stretched forward. They are radiant like the Sun-god and are surrounded with a fiery halo. They are decked in ornaments of snakes. [...] These Goddesses originate from the ten different letters of the mantra of Vajratārā, which is “oṃ tāre tuttāre ture svāhā”, consisting of ten syllables. Each syllable brings forth a Goddess, and these Goddesses are said to be the embodiments of the ten paramitas of the Mahāyāna School.

2) Sumbhā (सुम्भा) presides over the Nether region and represents one of the six Goddesses of the directions, commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—Her Colour is blue; her Symbol is the noose of snake; she has one face and two arms.—The sixth and the last goddess in the series is Sumbhā who is the presiding deity of the Nether region.

Sumbhā is described in Niṣpannayogāvalī (vajratārāmaṇḍala) and Sādhanamālā (vajratārāsādhana) as follows:—

“Below is Sumbhā blue in colour, holding in her left hand the Nocse made of a snake”.

[Her left hand as usual displays the raised index finger.]

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Sumbha (सुम्भ) refers to the Mantra used for subjugating obstacle-demons, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly: [while explaining the body circle (kāyacakra)]: “[...] Killing (or [the mantra starting with] ‘sumbha’) is commanded. A vajra-holder, a vow-observer, performs piling—Oṃ, kill, knock down the body [obstacle], hūm hūṃ phaṭ. Oṃ, seize, seize the speech [obstacle], hūṃ hūṃ phaṭ. Oṃ, capture, capture the mind [obstacle], hūṃ hūṃ phaṭ. Oṃ, may [you who are] the Blessed One bring the gnosis one to [this place], hoḥ, O the adamantine one, hūṃ hūṃ phat. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śumbha (शुंभ).—m (S The name of an Asura or demon slain by Durga.) Applied, appellatively, to a dull, sluggish, and stupid fellow.

--- OR ---

sumbha (सुंभ).—m ( H) A miser or niggard. 2 (Vulgar for śumbha) The name of an asura or demon. Hence, appellatively, a sluggish and stupid fellow.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śumbha (शुंभ).—m A dull, sluggish, stupid fellow.

--- OR ---

sumbha (सुंभ).—m A miser or niggard. A sluggish, stupid fellow.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śumbha (शुम्भ).—Name of a demon killed by Durgā.

Derivable forms: śumbhaḥ (शुम्भः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Sumbhā (सुम्भा).—name of a goddess (compare prec. but two): Sādhanamālā 180.7 etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śumbha (शुम्भ).—m.

(-mbhaḥ) An Asura or demon slain by Durga.

--- OR ---

Sumbha (सुम्भ).—m.

(-mbhaḥ) A country so named; also read suhya .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śumbha (शुम्भ).—[masculine] [Name] of an Asura.

--- OR ---

Sumbha (सुम्भ).—[masculine] [plural] [Name] of a people.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śumbha (शुम्भ):—[from śumbh] m. Name of an Asura or demon (slain by Durgā; he was the son of Gaveṣṭhin and grandson of Prahlāda), [Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa; Purāṇa]

2) Sumbha (सुम्भ):—m. [plural] Name of a people, [Rāmāyaṇa]

3) sg. Name of a country (cf. śumbha-deśa), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śumbha (शुम्भ):—(śa) śumbhati 6. a. To shine, be handsome; hurt; speak.

2) (mbhaḥ) 1. m. Demon slain by Durgā.

3) Ṣumbha (षुम्भ):—sumbhati 1. 6. a. Idem; be beautiful.

4) Sumbha (सुम्भ):—(mbhaḥ) 1. m. Name of a country.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śumbha (शुम्भ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Suṃbha, Suṃbhā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shumbha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Suṃbha (सुंभ) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Śumbha.

2) Suṃbhā (सुंभा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śumbhā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śuṃbha (ಶುಂಭ):—

1) [noun] a man disinclined to work or physical exertion; a lazy, indolent man.

2) [noun] a stupid fellow; a blockhead.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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