Shulka, Śulka: 17 definitions


Shulka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śulka can be transliterated into English as Sulka or Shulka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śulka (शुल्क).—A price for marriage; Kṛṣṇa was not prepared to pay any price for Satyā;1 one selling a daughter to be punished;2 a tax gathered by kings of Kali age.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 58. 40.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 227. 20.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 1. 34.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Śulka (शुल्क) or Suśulka refers to “very white”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.39-45]—“[...] Outside of the lotus, [the Mantrin] should draw the very white śaśimaṇḍala [e.g., suśulkasuśulkaṃ tu likhet tac chaśimaṇḍalam], and outside of that [he is to draw] a square endowed with the mark of a vajra. Thus, having written [all this] with saffron, bile, and white milk he should worship in peace with an all white [offering]. In this way, he [gives] edible offerings and liquor to the appropriate, voracious form [of the deity]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Śulka.—(IE 8-5; EI 12, 23, 25, 30; CII 4; CITD), tolls; customs duties; octroi duties; taxes particularly levied at ferries and passes and on roads, etc.; cf. krīḍara-śulka (EI 5), name of a tax; also śuṅgam, śuṅkam (SITI), customs, tolls. (HRS), tax, probably identical with bali according to early authorities; ferry dues, tolls and transit duties according to the Smṛtis and lexicons; according to the Arthaśāstra, (1) duties levied upon articles imported into a city, (2) port-dues, (3) duty upon the sale of liquors, (4) customs collected by the ferrymen and boundary-officers, (5) duty upon mining products, (6) duty upon imported salt, and (7) duty upon animals intended for slaughter; according to Śukra, tolls and duties upon building-sites, etc. The Amarakoṣa explains śulka as ghaṭṭa-ādi-deya and Kṣīrasvāmin enumerates the dues as ferry duties, tolls paid at military stations or police outposts and transit duties paid by merchants. Note: śulka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Sulka in India is the name of a plant defined with Nymphaea capensis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Nymphaea capensis var. madagascariensis (DC.) Conard (among others).

2) Sulka is also identified with Nymphaea nouchali It has the synonym Nymphaea emirnensis Planch. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Kew Bulletin (1989)
· Species Plantarum.
· J. Cytol. Genet. (1971)
· Flora Indica (1768)
· Regni Vegetabilis Systema Naturale (1821)
· Revue Horticole (1853)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Sulka, for example health benefits, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, side effects, diet and recipes, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śulka (शुल्क).—n S Toll, duty, tax as levied at ferries, passes, made roads &c. 2 Money given at marriages to the parents of the bride. 3 A marriagesettlement. 4 The profits of household labor, of the employment of domestic utensils, of the care of milch cattle &c. considered as the perquisite of the wife and her legal property.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śulka (शुल्क).—n Toll. A marriage-settlement. Money given at marriages to the parents of the bride.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śulka (शुल्क).—[śulkyate atisṛjyate karmaṇi ghañ]

1) A toll, tax, customs, duty; particularly levied at ferries, passes, roads &c.; कः सुधीः संत्यजेद्भाण्डं शुल्कस्यैवातिसाध्वसात् (kaḥ sudhīḥ saṃtyajedbhāṇḍaṃ śulkasyaivātisādhvasāt) H.3.125; Manusmṛti 8.159; Y.2.47.

2) Gain, profit.

3) Money advanced to ratify a bargain.

4) Purchase price (of a girl); money given to the parents of a bride; पीडितो दुहितृशुल्कसंस्थया (pīḍito duhitṛśulkasaṃsthayā) R.11.38; न कन्यायाः पिता विद्वान् गृह्णीयाच्छुल्कमण्वपि (na kanyāyāḥ pitā vidvān gṛhṇīyācchulkamaṇvapi) Manusmṛti 3.51;8.24;9.93,98; Pratimā 1.15.

5) A nuptial present.

6) Marriage settlement or dowry.

7) Present given by the bride-groom to his bride.

8) A dog; Uṇādi-sūtra 3.42.

9) Price, value.

Derivable forms: śulkaḥ (शुल्कः).

See also (synonyms): śulaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śulka (शुल्क).—mn.

(-lkaḥ-lkaṃ) 1. Toll, duty, customs or taxes. 2. The present made by the bridegroom to the bride, at the time of bringing her home to his family; a marriage settlement or dower. 3. Money given to the parents of the bride. 4. Money given at the purchase of any thing to ratify the bargain. 5. The profits of household labour, employment of domestic utensils, care of milch-cattle, preservation of ornaments, superintendance of servants, &c., when considered as the perquisite of the wife and her own legal property. E. śulk to quit, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śulka (शुल्क).—m. and n. 1. Toll, tax, duty, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 120. 2. Money given at the purchase of anything, to ratify the bargain. 3. Money given to the parents of the bride, originally as purchase-price, cf. Mahābhārata 13, 2422, sqq. and 4530; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 51. 4. A nuptial present, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 93. 5. The profits of household labour, care of milch cattle, etc-, when considered as the legal property of the wife. 6. Price, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 180, 15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śulka (शुल्क).—[masculine] price, toll, tax, duty; nuptial fee; contest-prize.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śulka (शुल्क):—[from śulk] mn. (ifc. f(ā). ) price, value, purchase-money, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] the prize of a contest, [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] toil, tax, duty, customs ([especially] money levied at ferries, passes, and roads), [Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Āpastamba; Manu-smṛti] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] nuptial gift ([originally] a price given to parents for the purchase of a bride, but in later times bestowed on the wife as her own property together with the profits of household labour, domestic utensils, ornaments etc.), dower, dowry, marriage settlement, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra; Manu-smṛti] etc. (cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 267])

5) [v.s. ...] wages of prostitution, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] [wrong reading] for śukra and śukla, [Mahābhārata]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śulka (शुल्क):—(ka) śulkayati 10. a. To speak; to gain; to create; to forsake.

2) [(lkaḥ-lkaṃ)] 1. m. n. Toll, duty; present; pledge; domestic property of the wife.

3) hāni (niḥ) 2. f. Loss of tax, dower, &c.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śulka (शुल्क) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Suṃka.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shulka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Śulka (शुल्क) [Also spelled shulk]:—(nm) fee; subscription; duty; -[dara] tariff; -[paddhati] tariff (system); ~[mukta] duty free; —, [vārṣika] annual subscription.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śulka (ಶುಲ್ಕ):—

1) [noun] a tax or toll.

2) [noun] the money, property given to the bride’s father by the bridegroom at the marriage.

3) [noun] amount paid to a prostitute by a man.

4) [noun] a fee or a percentage of the proceeds paid to a salesperson, broker, etc.; commission.

5) [noun] payment asked or given for professional services, admissions, licenses, tuition, etc.; a charge; a fee.

6) [noun] financial or monetary gain obtained from a business; profit.

7) [noun] a payment made in advance as a guarantee money for doing something.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Śulka (शुल्क):—n. 1. fee; 2. a subscription; 3. a due; payment; tariff;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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