Shayya, Śayyā: 22 definitions


Shayya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śayyā can be transliterated into English as Sayya or Shayya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śayyā (शय्या) refers to a “couch”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.7.—Accordingly, after the Goddess (Umā/Śivā) incarnated as Pārvatī by becoming the daughter of Menā:—“The goddess of great brilliance assumed the form of her baby child in front of Menā and began to cry in accordance with the ways of the world. On account of her splendour that diffused all round the lying-in-couch [i.e., ariṣṭa-śayyā], the midnight lamps that burnt in the lying-in-chamber were rendered dim in a trice, O sage. The women in the house were extremely glad on hearing the gentle cry of the child. In their excited flutter and great pleasure they rushed in. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śayyā (शय्या).—Bed; characteristics of a good one;1 to sleep on, with head to the east or south to avoid disease.2

  • 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 11. 111-12.
  • 2) Ib. III. 11. 113.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Śayyā (शय्या) refers to one of the various kinds of articles used for donation, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the tenth chapter contains the praise and classification of donations. It narrates the characteristics of proper recipients and the results of giving different kinds of articles like Bhūmi, Vidyā, Anna, Jala, Tila, Vāsa, Dīpa, Yāna, Śayyā, Dhānya, Aśva, Śāka, Indhana, Chatra, Auṣadha, Go, etc.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Śayyā (शय्या) refers to “beds”, which is a topic dealt with in the śayyā-vidhi section of  the Bhojanakutūhala (vibhāvarīvilāsa), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The vibhāvarīvilāsa which deals with the activities during night (after dinner). This section includes [viz., śayyā-vidhi (rules regarding bed)].

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Śayyā (शय्या):—Bed, mode of administration of poison along with bedding.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śayyā (शय्या) refers to “beds”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Venus also presides over perfumes, flowers, perfumed paste, gems, diamonds, ornaments, lotus or conch shells, beds (śayyā), bridegrooms, young men, young women, objects tending to provoke lustful desires and persons that eat good and sweet meals; over gardens, waters, voluptuaries and lewed men; over fame, comfort, generosity, beauty, and learning, over ministers, merchants, potters, birds and triphala”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Śayyā (शय्या) refers to a “bed”, according to the Ghaṭikāyantraghaṭanāvidhi, an unpublished manuscript describing the ritual connected with the setting up of the water clock and its invocation.—Accordingly, “[Now the pala-verses]: Do not, O pretty one, at the end of the bright fortnight, sleep at a place open to the sky. Should it turn night, the cruel Rāhu, starving with hunger and roaming hither and thither, may eat you up, taking your pretty round face for the full moon. Therefore, after darkness, make your bed [i.e., śayyā] at a secluded place inside the house”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Śayyā (शय्या) refers to the “bedding” (of one’s Guru) , according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “After this, O Śivā, hear the exposition of the Kula Conduct. After he has joined the tradition of the Siddhas, he should worship his guru as divine. The Yogin who is engaged in the worship of his guru can obtain the highest Power. The guru’s bedstead, his bedding (śayyā), clothes, ornaments, sandals, parasol, antilope-skin, bowl or anything else: if he touches any of these with his feet, he should place them on his head and recite [mantras] eight times. [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Śayyā (शय्या) refers to “beds” (in dreams), according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.21-27, while describing inauspicious dreams]—“[...] [He dreams of] the destruction of houses, palaces, beds (śayyā), clothes, and seats (śayyāvastrāsaneṣu); defeat of oneself in battle and theft of ones things. [He] ascends or is amongst donkeys, camels, dogs, jackals, and herons, vultures, and cranes. [He rides on] buffalos, owls, and crows, eats cooked meat, [wears a] red garland, and ointment for the body. [...]”

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: HAL: The function of the Vṛṣasārasaṃgraha in the Śivadharma corpus (ds)

Śayyā (शय्या) refers to “long”, attachment to which should be avoided by Saṃnyāsas (renouncers), according to the Vṛṣasārasaṃgraha: A Sanskrit text of twenty-four chapters contained in the Śivadharma corpus dealing with Dharma (religious duties).—Accordingly, [verse 11.52-53]: “He should go on his alms round visiting seven houses at the eighth part of the day. He should not sit down, he should not stay, and he should not say ‘Give me!’ He should live on what is available, on eight bites a day. He should not stick to items of clothes, food or a bed for long (śayyā)”.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Śayyā (शय्या) refers to “lying down”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “[...] Recent suffering (navaduḥkha) is ‘happiness’ (sukha) [in contrast] to the old suffering (pūrvaduḥkha) which is ‘suffering’. Thus, when one sits down one feels happiness, but when this position persists, it gives rise to suffering. At the beginning, walking, standing and lying down [i.e., śayyā] are happiness, but in the end they too are suffering. Whether one is bending or one is stretching, whether one is bowing the head or raising it, whether one looks straight ahead or to the side, whether one is breathing out or breathing in, suffering always follows the body. From conception and birth to death, there is not a single moment of happiness”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Śayyā (शय्या, “lodging”) refers to one of the hardships (parīṣaha), or “series of trials hard to endure” according to the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra 10.1 (Incarnation as Nandana). While practicing penance for a lac of years, Muni Nandana also endured a series of trials hard to endure (e.g., śayyā). Nandana is the name of a king as well as one of Mahāvīra’s previous births.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śayyā (शय्या).—f S A bed, couch, sofa, anything on which to repose. 2 Sleeping, reposing: also reclining or lying.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śayyā (शय्या).—f A bed. Sleeping.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śayyā (शय्या).—[śī ādhāre kyap]

1) A bed, couch; शय्या भूमितलम् (śayyā bhūmitalam) Śānti.4.9; मही रम्या शय्या (mahī ramyā śayyā) Bhartṛhari 3.79; R.5.66.

2) Sleeping.

3) Tying, stringing together.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śayyā (शय्या) or Śayā.—f.

(-yā) 1. A bed, a couch, a sopha. 2. Tying in knots, stringing. E. śī to sleep, kyap aff., and ayaṅ substituted for the vowel.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śayyā (शय्या).—i. e. śī + yā, f. A bed, a couch, [Pañcatantra] 138, 11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śayyā (शय्या).—[feminine] couch, bed; rest, sleep.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śayyā (शय्या):—[from śaya] f. (ifc. f(ā). ) a bed, couch, sofa ([accusative] with saṃ-√viś or adhi-ṣṭhā [√sthā], ‘to go to bed or to rest’; with [Causal] of ā-√ruh, ‘to take [a woman] to bed, have sexual intercourse with’ [acc.]; śayyāyām ā-rūḍha mfn. ‘gone to bed, lying in bed’), [ṢaḍvBr.] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] lying, reposing, sleeping, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] resort, refuge (See [compound])

4) [v.s. ...] stringing together ([especially] of words = gumphana or śabdagumpha), rhetorical composition or a [particular] rhetor. figure, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (‘couch’ and ‘rhetor. composition’ [Kādambarī, [Introduction], v. 8]).

5) Sāyya (साय्य):—m. a [patronymic] ([varia lectio] sāpya), [Ṛg-veda vi, 20, 6.]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śayyā (शय्या) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Sijjā, Sejjā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shayya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Śayyā (शय्या):—(nm) a bed, bedstead; ~[gata] gone to bed, confined to bed; ~[gṛha] a bed-chamber, bed-room; ~[sakta] bed-ridden.

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