Shathya, Śāṭhya: 14 definitions


Shathya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śāṭhya can be transliterated into English as Sathya or Shathya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य) refers to “cheating”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 15) (“On the nakṣatras—‘asterisms’”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Those who are born on the lunar day of Mṛgaśirṣa will delight or deal in perfumes, dress, pearls, flowers, fruits, precious stones, wild beasts, birds and deer; will be Somayajis or singers; will be lascivious; will be good writers or painters. Those who are born on the lunar day of Ārdrā will delight in killing, torturing, lying, in adultery, thieving, cheating (śāṭhya) and tale-bearing; will deal in pod-grains, black magic, sorcery and exorcism. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य) refers to “cheat (one’s teacher)”, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “He should not protect (his) body (at the expense of his spiritual discipline). He should not cheat (śāṭhya) his teacher, nor should he ever ignore the tasks he should do whether he has (expressly) been told to do them or not. The disciple who is deceitful and whose nature is wicked, one who expounds false (views to others) and, like a prostitute, hides his intentions and is not sincere is destroyed. The foolish one who, like a pimp, is two-faced and (whose selfish) intention (constantly changes) this way and that, is destroyed”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य) refers to “guile” (Cf. Māyā—‘deception’), according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Through these ten immeasurables (apramāṇa), son of good family, the Bodhisattva completes the accumulations of merit (puṇya-saṃbhāra). What are these ten? [...] (8) completion of the immeasurable enjoyment of the circle of hair between the eyebrows by accumulating endless offerings; (9) completion of the immeasurable, invisible crown of the head by serving teachers (guru) with endless homage and conquering pride; (10) completion of the immeasurable unfailing courage (amogha-vikrānti) by adequately grasping (pradakṣiṇa-graha) the coming and going without deception or guile (māyā-śāṭhya). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य, “deceit”) refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., śāṭhya). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Śāṭhya (“treachery”) also refers to one of the “twenty-four minor defilements” (upakleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 69).

Śāṭhya (“deceit”) also refers to the one of the “six obstacles to concentration” (samādhi-āvaraṇa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 118).

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śāṭhya (शाठ्य).—n S Roguery or knavery: also villainy or wickedness freely.

--- OR ---

sāṭhyā (साठ्या).—See sāṭamāra &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य).—[śaṭhasya bhāvaḥ ṣyañ] (a) Dishonesty, perfidy, guile; trickery, fraud, villainy; आजन्मनः शाठ्यमशिक्षितो यः (ājanmanaḥ śāṭhyamaśikṣito yaḥ) Ś.5.25; दाक्षिण्यं स्वजने दया परजने शाठ्यं सदा दुर्जने (dākṣiṇyaṃ svajane dayā parajane śāṭhyaṃ sadā durjane) Bhartṛhari 2.22. (b) Art, skill, cunning; देव्या निह्नोतुमिच्छोरिति सुरसरितं शाठ्यमव्याद्विभोर्वः (devyā nihnotumicchoriti surasaritaṃ śāṭhyamavyādvibhorvaḥ) Mu.1.1.

Derivable forms: śāṭhyam (शाठ्यम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य).—n.

(-ṭhyaṃ) Wickedness, villainy. E. śaṭh wicked, ṣyañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य).—i. e. śaṭha + ya, n. 1. Deceit, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 99, M.M. 2. Wickedness. 3. Perfidy, hatred, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 19.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य).—[neuter] falsehood, villany; p. vant.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य):—[from śāṭha] n. wickedness, deceit, guile, roguery, dishonesty, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature etc.]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saṭṭha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shathya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śāṭhya (ಶಾಠ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] the quality of cheating; fraud.

2) [noun] the quality or state of being obstinate; stubbornness; obstinacy.

3) [noun] the behaviour or an act of a rogue; roguery; wickedness.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Śāṭhya (शाठ्य):—n. 1. dishonesty; perfidy; guile; trickery; fraud; 2. wickedness; villainy;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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