Shap, Śap: 11 definitions

Introduction:

Shap means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śap can be transliterated into English as Sap or Shap, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Śap (शप्).—A vikarana affix (conjugational sign) applied to roots of the first conjugation and in general to all secondary roots i. e. roots formed from nouns and from other roots before personal-endings which are Sarvadhatuka and which possess the sense of agent, provided there is no other vikarana affix prescribed; e. g. भवति, एधते, कारयति, हारयति, बुभूपति, पुत्रीयति, पुत्रकाम्यति, कामयते, गेीपायति, कण्डूयति, पटयति, दिनन्ति (bhavati, edhate, kārayati, hārayati, bubhūpati, putrīyati, putrakāmyati, kāmayate, geीpāyati, kaṇḍūyati, paṭayati, dinanti) (यामिन्यः (yāminyaḥ)) etc. cf. कर्तरि शप् (kartari śap), P. III.1 .68. This affix शप् (śap) is dropped after roots of the second conjugation (अदादि (adādi)) and those of the third conjugation (जुहोत्यादि (juhotyādi)) and in Vedic Literature wherever observed; cf. P.II.4.72, 73, 75, 76.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śap (शप्).—A technical term used by Pāṇini for the conjugational sign अ (a) inserted between the root and the terminations of the conjugational tenses in the first class of roots.

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Śap (शप्).—ind. A particle and prefix implying assent or compliance.

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Śap (शप्).—1, 4 U. (śapati-te, śapyati-te, śapta)

1) To curse, execrate; अशपद् भव मानुषीति ताम् (aśapad bhava mānuṣīti tām) R.8.8; सोऽभूत् परासुरथ भूमिपतिं शशाप (so'bhūt parāsuratha bhūmipatiṃ śaśāpa) (vṛddhaḥ) 9.78;1.77.

2) To swear, take an oath, promise by oath, say on oath, (usually with dat. of the person to whom a promise &c. is made and instr. of the object by which it is made); भरतेनात्मना चाहं शपे ते मनुजाधिप । यथा नान्येन तुष्येयमृते रामविवासनात् (bharatenātmanā cāhaṃ śape te manujādhipa | yathā nānyena tuṣyeyamṛte rāmavivāsanāt) || Rām.; when used without an object it generally governs the instr. of the thing and dat. of the person by which or whom the oath is taken; सत्यं शपामि ते पादपङ्कजस्पर्शेन (satyaṃ śapāmi te pādapaṅkajasparśena) K.; Ghaṭ. 22; अशप्त निह्नुवानाऽसौ सीतायै स्मरमोहितः (aśapta nihnuvānā'sau sītāyai smaramohitaḥ) Bhaṭṭikāvya 8.74; प्रेम जिज्ञासमानाभ्यस्ताभ्योऽशप्सत कामिनः (prema jijñāsamānābhyastābhyo'śapsata kāminaḥ) 8.33; sometimes शप् (śap) governs a cognate accusative; सहस्रशोऽसौ शपथानशप्यत् (sahasraśo'sau śapathānaśapyat) Bhaṭṭikāvya 3.32; Manusmṛti 8.11.

3) To blame, scold, revile, abuse (with dat. or by itself); द्विषद्भ्यश्चा- शपंस्तथा (dviṣadbhyaścā- śapaṃstathā) Bhaṭṭikāvya 17.4; प्रतिवाचमदत्त केशवः शपमानाय न चेदिभूभुजे (prativācamadatta keśavaḥ śapamānāya na cedibhūbhuje) Śiśupālavadha 16.25. -Caus. (śāpayati-te)

1) To bind by an oath, conjure; शापितोऽसि गोब्राह्मणकाम्यया (śāpito'si gobrāhmaṇakāmyayā) Mṛcchakaṭika 3; शापितासि मम लवाङ्गकावलोकितयोश्च जीवितेन यदि वाचा न कथयसि (śāpitāsi mama lavāṅgakāvalokitayośca jīvitena yadi vācā na kathayasi) Mā l.8.

2) To cause any one (acc.) to swear by (instr.); सत्येन शापयेद्विप्रं क्षत्रियं वाहनायुधैः (satyena śāpayedvipraṃ kṣatriyaṃ vāhanāyudhaiḥ) Manusmṛti 8.113.

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Sap (सप्).—1 P. (sapati)

1) To honour, worship.

2) To connect.

3) To obey, conform to.

4) To obtain

5) To touch, sip.

6) To do, perform.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śap (शप्).—r. 1st cl. (śapati-te) r. 4th cl. (śapyati-te) 1. To revile, to wish eviimprecations on, to curse. 2. To take an oath, to swear; in this sense śap sometimes governs a cognate accusative; but generally it takes the accusative of the person to whom a promise is made, and the instrumental of the object by which it is made; when used intransitively it governs the dative of the object or person, by which the oath is taken. 3. To blame.

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Śap (शप्).—Ind. A particle and prefix of assent or acceptance, as śapkaroti he accepts.

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Ṣap (षप्).—r. 1st. cl. (sapati) 1. To be connected. 2. To understand thoroughly.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śap (शप्).—i. 1 and 4, [Parasmaipada.] [Ātmanepada.] (the original signification was probably ‘To cry aloud’), 1. To execrate, to curse. [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3. 58. 2. With the dat., To revile, [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 8, 33. 3. To swear, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 110. 4. To assure by an oath, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 11, 8. [Causal.] 1. To cause to swear, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 113 (with the instr. of the object by which one is sworn). 2. To conjure; śapitāsi jīvitena, You are conjured by the life of, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 129, 10.

— With the prep. abhi abhi, To execrate, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 41, 3.

— With pari pari, The same, [Bhaṭṭikāvya, (ed. Calc.)] 4, 33.

— Cf. probably cf. the [frequentative.] śaṃśap.

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Sap (सप्).—i. 1, [Parasmaipada.] 1. To connect. 2. To worship.

— Cf. , perhaps (doubtful on account of ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śap (शप्).—śapati śapate (śapyati), [participle] śapta (q.v.) & śapita curse, execrate, revile, scold, blame; [Middle] (A.) curse one’s self if, i.e. assert with an oath that not (yadi), swear by ([instrumental]), conjure ([accusative] or [dative]); implore, entreat for ([accusative]) by ([instrumental]). [Causative] śāpayati cause to swear, conjure by ([instrumental]).

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Sap (सप्).—1. sapati sapate follow after, be attached or devoted to, serve ([accusative]). C.[Middle] & abhi [Middle] = [Simple]

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Sap (सप्).—2. (sāp) following, serving (—°).

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Sāp (साप्).—reach, obtain, get, win; finish, accomplish. [Causative] cause to reach or attain; achieve, finish, conclude.

Sāp is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sa and āp (आप्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śap (शप्):—1. śap (in gram.) a technical term used for the Vikaraṇa a (inserted between the root and terminations of the conjugational tenses in verbs of the Ist class; See vi-karaṇa, p.954).

2) 2. śap ind. a prefix implying assent or acceptance (as in śap-karoti, he admits or accepts), [Horace H. Wilson]

3) 3. śap [class] 1. 4. [Ātmanepada] [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxiii, 31; xxvi, 59]) śapati, te or śapyati, te (the latter only in [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]; [perfect tense] śaśāpa, śepe [Aorist] aśāpsīt, aśapta [grammar] [2. [plural] śāpta in [Taittirīya-saṃhitā] [probably] [wrong reading]]; [future] śaptā, [ib.]; śapsyati, te, [ib.]; śapiṣye, [Mahābhārata]; [infinitive mood] śaptum or śapitum, [ib.]; [indeclinable participle] śapitvā, [ib.]; śaptvā [grammar]),

—to curse (mostly [Parasmaipada] with [accusative]; in [Atharva-veda v, 30, 3] [Ātmanepada] with [dative case]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

— ([Parasmaipada] [Ātmanepada]) to swear an oath, utter an execration (sometimes with śapatham or thān; also with anṛtam, to swear a false oath), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

— ([Parasmaipada] [Ātmanepada]) to revile, scold, blame ([accusative], rarely [dative case]), [Yājñavalkya; Kāvya literature; Purāṇa];—([Ātmanepada]; mc. also [Parasmaipada])

—to curse one’s self (followed by yadi, ‘if’, id est. to promise with an oath, vow or swear, ‘that one will not’ etc.; or followed by [dative case] and rarely [accusative] of the person to whom and [instrumental case] of the object by which one swears; or followed by iti e.g. varuṇeti, ‘to swear by the name of Varuṇa’ [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

— ([Ātmanepada]) to adjure, supplicate, conjure any one ([accusative]) by ([instrumental case]), [Rāmāyaṇa; Harivaṃśa] :—[Causal] śāpayati ([Aorist] aśīśapat), to adjure, conjure, exorcise (demons), [Atharva-veda; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa];

—to cause any one ([accusative]) to swear by ([instrumental case]), [Manu-smṛti viii, 113] (cf. śāpita) :—[Desiderative] śiśapsati, te [grammar]:—[Intensive] śāśapyate, śāśapti, or śaṃśapyate, śaṃśapti, [ib.]

4) Sap (सप्):—1. sap (cf.sac) [class] 1. [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xi, 6]) sapati (and [Ātmanepada] te [perfect tense] sepuḥ, [Ṛg-veda]; [future] sapitā, sapiṣyati [grammar]),

—to follow or seek after, be devoted to, honour, serve, love, caress (also sexually), [Ṛg-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] (cf. [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska iii, 5;14]) :

—[Causal] sāpayati ([subjunctive] [Aorist] sīṣapanta), to serve, honour, worship, do homage (others ‘to receive homage’), [Ṛg-veda vii, 43, 4];

—to have sexual intercourse (?), [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa] [? cf. [Greek] σέβομαι, σέβας].

5) 2. sap (ifc.) See ṛtaand keta-sap.

6) Sāp (साप्):—strong form of 2. sap q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śap (शप्):—(ya, ña) śapyati, te 4. c. To revile; curse, swear. Also śapati, te 1. c.

2) A particle and prefix of assent or acceptance.

3) Ṣap (षप्):—sapati 1. a. To be connected; to understand well.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śap (शप्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saba.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shap in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Shap in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) a curse, an imprecation; ~[grasta] accursed, afflicted through a curse; hence ~[grastata] (nf); -[nivritti/moksha] liberated from the effect of a curse; —[dena] to curse, to imprecate..—shap (शाप) is alternatively transliterated as Śāpa.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Sāp (ಸಾಪ್):—[adverb] = ಸಾಫ [sapha]3.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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