Samvartaka, Saṃvartaka, Sāṃvartaka: 17 definitions


Samvartaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Saṃvartaka) various roles suitable to them.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Samvartaka in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक) is another name for Vāmaka, one of the seven regions situated in Krauñcadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 88. Krauñcadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Jyotiṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

2) Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक).—One of the eleven rākṣasas facing the eleven rudras in the battle of the gods (devas) between the demons (asuras), according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 94. This battle was initiated by Mahiṣāsura in order to win over the hand of Vaiṣṇavī, the form of Trikalā having a red body representing the energy of Viṣṇu. Trikalā is the name of a Goddess born from the combined looks of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśvara (Śiva).

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक).—A nāga born to Kaśyapaprajāpati of his wife Kadrū. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 10).

2) Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक).—An agni, which is burning always on mount Mālyavān. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 27).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक) refers to one of the four “terrible clouds (toyada) causing dissolution (pralaya)” that arose after Brahmā spilled four drops of semen unto the ground, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.19. Accordingly as Śiva said to Brahmā:—“[...] the semen drops that fell in the middle of the altar-ground from you when you were excited by lust and seen by me will not be retained by any one. Four drops of your semen (caturbindu) fell on the ground. Hence so many terrible clouds (toyada) causing dissolution (pralaya) shall rise up in the sky (vyoman). In the meantime, (when Śiva said so) in front of the Devas and the sages, so many clouds emanated from the semen drops. O dear one, four types of great clouds that caused destruction are the Saṃvartaka, the Āvarta, the Puṣkara and the Droṇa. O excellent sage, those clouds rumbling and roaring with hideous sounds dropping showers at the slightest wish of Śiva burst asunder in the sky”.

2) Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक) is the name of a Gaṇa-chief who participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“O Nārada, listen to the numerical strength of the most important and courageous of those groups. [...] O sage, Saṃvartaka, Kulīśa, Svayamprabhu, Lokāntaka, Dīptātmā, Daityāntaka, Bhṛṅgīriṭi, Devadevapriya, Aśani and Bhālaka each went with sixty-four thousand Gaṇas. [...] Thus at the bidding of Śiva, the heroic Vīrabhadra went ahead followed by crores and crores, thousands and thousands, hundreds and hundreds of Gaṇas [viz., Saṃvartaka]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक).—A group of clouds ordered by Indra to inundate Gokula;1 pralaya clouds.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 25. 2-7.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 2. 8; Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 7; 100. 156.

1b) Also Aurva and Vaḍavāmukha;1 the fire that consumes waters; the pralaya fire;2 son of Manyumān Agni.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 9; 12. 35-6; 22. 43; 25. 45, 55.
  • 2) Ib. IV. 1. 152; 2. 50. Vāyu-purāṇa 6. 29; 54. 57
  • 3) Ib. 29. 33.

2) Sāṃvartaka (सांवर्तक).—The pralaya fire remembered by those who witnessed the fight between Arjuna and Aśvatthāman.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 7. 31.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.10, I.35) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Saṃvartaka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Samvartaka in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक) refers to the “fire (of the lion)”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, [as the Goddess narrates]: “Its will is the Unmanifest whose form is subtly manifest. Then I was overcome with wander and (asked myself): ‘What is this emptiness?’ Realising that it was terrible and deep, I was frightened and (my) mind slumbered. Having entered into Bhairava’s sacrifice I remained there in (my) supreme (form). As an atom (of consciousness), the Lion (bore) a subtle form. O Lord, the Lion Fire (siṃha-saṃvartaka), full of darkness, became manifest”.

2) Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक) refers to one of the nine Bhairava associated with the nine energies of Navātman, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—[Note: this passage is drawn from the Gurukramasūtra]—Another way in which the nine energies of Navātman may be understood are as nine aspects of the Command that generates the Bhairavas corresponding to its nine letters.  [...] In this case Navātman is SHKṢMLVRYŪ(Ṃ): [...] Saṃvartaka (KṢa) by the Pervasive One (vyāpinī). [...] (This) is the excellent teacher within the tradition. He who knows the teacher here is the delight of Kula.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Samvartaka in Jainism glossary
Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक) refers to a plough and represents one of the nine gifts of the Gods given to Tripṛṣṭha, according to chapter 4.1 [śreyāṃsanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“[...] The Vidyādharas, Jvalanajaṭin and others, mounted their chariots like lions a mountain-plateau. Then drawn by merit, the Gods gave Tripṛṣṭha a divine bow named Śārṅga, a club Kaumodakī, a conch Pāñcajanya, and a jewel named Kaustubha, a sword Nandaka, and a garland Vanamālā. They gave Balabhadra a plough named Saṃvartaka, a pestle named Saumanda, and a club named Candrikā. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samvartaka in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saṃvartaka (संवर्तक).—m A cloud. A universal des- truction by rain.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samvartaka in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक).—

1) A kind of cloud.

2) The fire of destruction, the fire that is to destroy the world at the period of universal destruction; इतोऽपि वडवानलः सह समस्तसंवर्तकैः (ito'pi vaḍavānalaḥ saha samastasaṃvartakaiḥ) Bhartṛhari 2.76.

3) Sub-marine fire.

4) Name of Balarāma.

-kam The plough of Balarāma.

Derivable forms: saṃvartakaḥ (संवर्तकः).

--- OR ---

Sāṃvartaka (सांवर्तक).—a. Relating to or appearing at the dissolution of the universe; लोकानामभवे युक्तं सांवर्तकमिवानलम् (lokānāmabhave yuktaṃ sāṃvartakamivānalam) Rām. 3.65.1; Bhāgavata 1.25.2.

-kaḥ the fire at the प्रलयकाल (pralayakāla); दह्यमानाः प्रजाः सर्वाः सांवर्तकममंसत (dahyamānāḥ prajāḥ sarvāḥ sāṃvartakamamaṃsata) Bhāgavata 1.7.31.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक).—adj., (1) (to saṃvartati 1) world- destroying: °kā pi vātā Mahāvastu i.236.15 = 241.9; so Senart both times, with mss. in 241.9, while in 236.15 mss. °tanā, q.v.; (2) (to saṃvartati 2) conducive, leading (to, dat.): anarthāyāhitāya °kaṃ bhaviṣyati Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 255.10 (prose).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक).—[saṃvarta + ka], m. 1. Submarine fire, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 68. 2. Baladeva. 3. The plough of Baladeva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक).—[adjective] rolling up, destroying; [masculine] such a fire, destruction of the world.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक):—[=saṃ-vartaka] [from saṃ-varta > saṃ-vṛt] mfn. (cf. sāṃ-v) rolling up, destroying (all things at the end of the world), [Nṛsiṃha-tāpanīya-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] m. the world-destroying fire ([plural] ‘the fires of hell’), [Gṛhyāsaṃgraha; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] submarine fire (= bāḍava), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] gaṇa) a group or class of world-destroying clouds, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] the end or dissolution of the universe, [Rāmāyaṇa; Harivaṃśa]

6) [v.s. ...] Terminalia Bellerica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of Baladeva (q.v.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] of a serpent-demon, [Mahābhārata]

9) [v.s. ...] of an ancient sage (= saṃ-varta), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

10) [v.s. ...] of a mountain, [Colebrooke]

11) [=saṃ-vartaka] [from saṃ-varta > saṃ-vṛt] n. Bala-deva’s ploughshare, [Harivaṃśa]

12) Sāṃvartaka (सांवर्तक):—[from sāṃvarta] mfn. ([from] saṃ-vartaka = saṃvarta) relating to or appearing at the dissolution of the universe (as fire, the sun etc.), [Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃvartaka (संवर्तक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Saṃvaṭṭaga, Saṃvaṭṭaya, Saṃvattaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samvartaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samvartaka in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Saṃvartaka (ಸಂವರ್ತಕ):—

1) [noun] = ಸಂವರ್ತ - [samvarta -] 5.

2) [noun] (myth.) the all-destroying fire, that occurs at the time of priodical destruction of the world.

3) [noun] a fire the ocean is believed to have; the marine fire.

4) [noun] Balarāma, the elder brother of Křṣṇa.

5) [noun] his plough-like weapon.

6) [noun] name of a sage.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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