Sammukha, Saṃmukha: 20 definitions


Sammukha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sammukh.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Saṃmukha (संमुख) refers to “that which is (displayed) in front”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “(Kubjikā) is the colour of (dark) blue collyrium. [...] She wears a tiger skin and a cloak of lion skin. Her limbs are adorned with divine ornaments and she laughs loudly. Her western face is yellow and the one in the north is dark blue. (The one) in the south is black. The eastern one, displayed in front [i.e., saṃmukha], is red while the one born in the north-east (i.e. above) is (white) as crystal. The uppermost face, worshipped as Parā, (shines) like a thousand suns. Śambhu has said that all the faces have fierce gaping mouths with protruding teeth”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Saṃmukha (संमुख) [=saṃmukhī?] refers to “before the eyes” (i.e., ‘standing in front of someone’s eyes’), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.1-9, while describing the appearance and worship of Viṣṇu, in the form of Nārāyaṇa]—“[...] Or, he should meditate [on Nārāyaṇa] atop Garuḍa, Śrī at his side. [He should visualize Viṣṇu] very white and beautiful [with] three faces [that] resemble the moon, six arms, decorated like Varāha Hari, [his hands] endowed with [the shapes of] wish-granting and protection. Śrī is of the same color and holds the same weapons, suitably beautiful and charming before the eyes (saṃmukhī) of Devadeva. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Sammukha in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sammukha (सम्मुख) refers to “(appearing) in front”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.42 (“Description of the meeting of the Lord and the Mountain”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] On seeing the army of the gods Himavat was struck with wonder. Considering himself blessed he appeared in front (sammukha) of them. The gods too were struck with wonder on seeing his army. The gods and the mountains became delighted. The vast army of the mountains and the gods, O sage, on coming together shone like the eastern and western oceans in juxtaposition. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Sammukha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Saṃmukha (संमुख) refers to “facing (the highest reality)”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [Now], I will teach the practice of that, which produces absorption. [...] The Yogin, who is free from all thoughts in regard to [everything] internal and external, should meditate with [his] mind on nothing. [Then,] he becomes one who faces the highest reality (tattva-saṃmukha). [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Saṃmukha (संमुख) refers to “direct vision” (i.e., ‘seeing something directly’) [?], according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] At that time, sixty koṭis of Bodhisattvas, having stood up from the congregation, joined their palms, paid homage to the Lord, and then uttered these verses in one voice: ‘[...] (221) Even though we are very far away, we will go to quench the desire for the dharma. Having obtained pleasure and joy of the dharma, we will work for the benefit of living beings (dehin). (222) Despite seeing numerous errors of living beings directly (saṃmukhasaṃmukhaṃ tatra saṃdṛśya), we will investigate ourselves, abiding in the gentleness of the dharma. [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Sammukha (सम्मुख) refers to “turning towards someone”, according to the Ṭīkā Pot Worship [i.e., Kalaśapūjā] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Come, highest divinity, to your own place, supreme being, (As) I carry out worship, continuously be turned towards me (sammukha), For the symapthy of the patron, come near, all divinities”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sammukha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sammukha : (adj.) face to face with. (loc.) in the presence. || sammukhā (ind.) in front; face to face.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sammukha, (adj.) (saṃ+mukha) face to face with, in presence; sammukhaciṇṇa a deed done in a person’s presence J. III, 27; sammukhā (Abl.) 1. face to face, before, from before D. II, 155; Sn. p. 79; J. I, 115; III, 89 (opp. parokkhā); with Acc. Bu II. 73=J. I, 17; with Gen. D. I, 222; II, 220; M. I, 146. -2. in a full assembly of qualified persons Vin. II, 3; Loc. sammukhe D. II, 206; J. V, 461. In composition sammukha°, sammukhā° & sammukhī° (before bhū): °bhāva (°a°) presence, confrontation Miln. 126; (°ī°) being face to face with, coming into one’s presence D. I, 103; M. I, 438; A. I, 150; °bhūta (°ī°) being face to face with, confronted D. II, 155; S. IV, 94; Vin. II, 73; A. III, 404 sq.; V, 226; one who has realized the saṃyojanas Kvu 483; °vinaya (°ā°) proceeding in presence, requiring the presence of a chapter of priests and of the party accused Vin. II, 74, 93 sq.; IV, 207; A. I, 99; DhsA. 144. See also yebhuyyasikā. (Page 696)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sammukha (सम्मुख).—a (S) Facing or fronting, having the face opposed to, or being opposed to the face of.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sammukha (सम्मुख).—a Facing or fronting.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃmukha (संमुख).—a. (-khā or -khī f.),

-saṃmukhīna a.

1) Facing, fronting, face to face, opposite, confronting; कामं न तिष्ठति मदाननसंमुखी सा (kāmaṃ na tiṣṭhati madānanasaṃmukhī sā) Ś.1.31; R.15.17; Śiśupālavadha 1.86.

2) Encountering, meeting.

3) Disposed to.

4) Looking or directed towards.

5) Propitious, favourable; त्रयोऽप्य- न्यायतः सिद्धाः संमुखे कर्मणि स्थिते (trayo'pya- nyāyataḥ siddhāḥ saṃmukhe karmaṇi sthite) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.91.

6) Fit, suitable.

-kham, -khe ind. In front of, opposite to, before, in the presense of; न बभूव तदा कश्चिद्युयुत्सोरस्य संमुखे (na babhūva tadā kaścidyuyutsorasya saṃmukhe) Rām. 7.28.5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Saṃmukha (संमुख).—adj., epithet of gāthā, only in Mahāvastu (re-placed elsewhere by °kham, adv., but once like it associated with sārūpya, q.v.), (spoken) face to face (not passend, den Umständen angemessen, [Boehtlingk] 7.381, citing only passages with saṃmukham, adv.): bodhisattvaṃ…saṃmukhā- bhiḥ sārūpyābhir gāthābhiḥ abhistave Mahāvastu ii.266.1; °khā- bhir gāthābhir abhistave iii.345.17; with omission also of [Page581-b+ 71] the word gāthābhiḥ, bhagavantaṃ °khābhir adhyabhāṣe Mahāvastu i.174.2. Cf. °kha-vinaya, and °kham, °khā(t).

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Saṃmukhā (संमुखा).—(t) , adv. (abl. of °kha; = Pali °khā), (1) from (the presence of), with gen. (compare saṃmukham, 2): bhagavato °khā śrutvā °khā pragṛhītvā Mahāvastu i.319.6; śrutaṃ hi mayā mahābrahmaṇo °khād…iii.217.8; 218.4 and (om. mahā) 17 (mss. always brāhm°); (2) in the presence of, with gen. (so also Pali, Miln. 28.6): evaṃ Bhagavāṃ Uruvilvā-kāśyapasya saṃmukhā (v.l. °khāt) trayo bhrātarāṃ…vinayesi Mahāvastu iii.428.9; similarly 429.11 °kāśyapasya saṃmukhā (but here mss. pramukhā; Senart's note suggests reading in both places °Kāśyapa-pramukhā, of whom K. was the chief; there were, in fact, only three brothers, counting U.-K., and perhaps Senart's suggestion is right).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sammukha (सम्मुख).—mfn.

(-khaḥ-khā or -khī-khaṃ) Encountering, facing, in front of. E. sam with, mukha the face.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃmukha (संमुख).—[feminine] ī (ā) facing, fronting, directed towards, [figuratively] inclined to, propitious, favourable ([genetive], [locative], or —°). [neuter] saṃmukham [adverb] towards, in front of, before ([genetive]); °— & [locative] opposite, in front, before the eyes.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃmukha (संमुख):—[=sam-mukha] mf(ī rarely ā)n. facing, fronting, confronting, being face to face or in front of or opposite to ([genitive case] or ifc. or [in the beginning of a compound]), present, before the eyes, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] being about to begin or at the beginning of ([compound]), [Harivaṃśa]

3) [v.s. ...] directed or turned towards, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

4) [v.s. ...] inclined or favourable to ([genitive case] or [compound]), propitious, [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara; Pañcatantra]

5) [v.s. ...] intent upon ([locative case] or [compound]), [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya; Kathāsaritsāgara]

6) [v.s. ...] adapted to circumstances, fit, suitable, [Lalita-vistara]

7) [v.s. ...] with the mouth or face, [Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sammukha (सम्मुख):—[sa-mmukha] (khaḥ-khā-khaṃ) a. Encountering, facing; before.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃmukha (संमुख) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saṃmuha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sammukha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sammukha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Sammukha (सम्मुख) [Also spelled sammukh]:—(a) before, in front of; opposite; facing, confronting, being face to face; propitious.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Sammukha (ಸಮ್ಮುಖ):—

1) [noun] the region, place that is immediately in front.

2) [noun] a direct meeting; a meeting face to face.

3) [noun] the presence (of a person or of an idol of a deity, etc.).

4) [noun] (dance.) one of the postures of the hand in which the palm is turned towards oneself.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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