Samma, Sammā, Saṃmā, Shamma: 13 definitions


Samma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Samma in the Hindi language is the name of a plant identified with Engelhardtia spicata Lechen ex Blume from the Juglandaceae (Walnut) family having the following synonyms: Engelhardtia aceriflora, Gyrocarpus pendulus. For the possible medicinal usage of samma, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

F Good, right, correct.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)

Samma (सम्म) is a Prakrit ending for deriving proper personal names, mentioned as an example in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning samma) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Samma in India is the name of a plant defined with Engelhardia spicata in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Engelhardtia philippinensis C. DC. (among others).

2) Samma in Southern Africa is also identified with Citrullus lanatus It has the synonym Cucumis colocynthis Thunb., nom. illeg., non Cucumis colocynthis L. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië (1825)
· Flora Malesiana, being an Illustrated Systematic Account of the Malaysian Flora
· FBI (1888)
· Spermat. (1972)
· Enumeratio Plantarum Africae Australis Extratropicae (1826)
· Catalogus Seminum et Sporarum in Horto Botanico Universitatis Imperialis Tokyoensis (1915)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Samma, for example pregnancy safety, chemical composition, side effects, health benefits, extract dosage, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

samma : (a term of familiar address; seen only in voc.) my dear. (nt.) a cymbal. || sammā (ind.) properly; rightly; thoroughly.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Sammā, 2 (indecl.) (Vedic samyac (=samyak) & samīś “connected, in one”; see under saṃ°) thoroughly, properly, rightly; in the right way, as it ought to be, best, perfectly (opp. micchā) D. I, 12; Vin. I, 12; Sn. 359; 947; Dh. 89, 373. Usually as °-, like sammā-dhārā even or proper showers (i.e. at the right time) Pv. II, 970; especially in connection with constituents of the eightfold Aryan Path, where it is contrasted with micchā; see magga 2 a. (e.g. VbhA. 114 sq. , 121, 320 sq.). ‹-› The form sammā is reduced to samma° before short vowels (with the insertion of a sandhi —d-, cp. puna-deva), like samma-d-eva properly, in harmony or completeness D. I, 110; Vin. I, 9: PvA. 139, 157; samma-daññā & °akkhāta (see below); and before double consonants arisen from assimilation, like sammag-gata (=samyak+gata). The cpds. we shall divide into two groups, viz. (A) cpds. with samma°, (B) with sammā°.

A. —akkhāta well preached Dh. 86. —aññā perfect knowledge Vin. I, 183; S. I, 4; IV, 128; Dh. 57 (°vimutta, cp. DhA. I, 434); It. 38, 79, 93, 95, 108. —attha a proper or good thing or cause J. VI, 16. —ddasa having right views A. II, 18; S. IV, 205, 207; Sn. 733; It. 47, 61, 81; Kvu 339. —ggata (cp. BSk. samyaggata Divy 399) who has wandered rightly, perfect M. I, 66; who has attained the highest point, an Arahant D. I, 55; S. I, 76; A. I, 269; IV, 226; V, 265; J. III, 305; It. 87; Ap 218. Also sammāgata Vin. II, 20317. —ppajāna having right knowledge Dh. 20; It. 115. —ppaññā right knowledge, true wisdom Vin. I, 14; Dh. 57, 190; Sn. 143; It. 17; Miln. 39. —ppadhāna (cp. BSk. samyakprahāna Divy 208) right exertion Vin. I, 22; Dhs. 358; Dpvs 18, 5; they are four D. II, 120; M. III, 296; explained M. II, 11 (anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya; uppannānaṃ pahānāya; anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya; uppannānaṃ ṭhitiyā).

B. —ājīva right living, right means of livelihood, right occupation Vin. I, 10; S. V, 421, etc.; formula D. II, 312; (adj.) living in the right way M. I, 42; A. II, 89. —kammanta right conduct, right behaviour Vin. I, 10; S. V, 421 etc.; definition D. II, 312; Dhs. 300; adj. behaving in the right way M. I, 42; A. II, 89. —ñāṇa right knowledge, enlightenment, results from right concentration D. II, 217; A. I, 292; adj. M. I, 42. —ñāṇin possessing the right insight A. II, 89, 222. —dassana right views Vism. 605. —diṭṭhi right views, right belief, the first stage of the noble eightfold path, consists in the knowledge of the four truths D. II, 311; its essence is knowledge Dhs. 20, 297, 317; cp. Vism. 509; comprises the knowledge of the absence of all permanent Being and the reality of universal conditioned Becoming S. II, 17; III, 135; and of the impermanence of the 5 Khandhas S. III, 51=IV. 142; and of Sīla, of causation and of the destruction of the Āsavas M. I, 46—55; how obtained M. I, 294; two degrees of M. III, 72; supremely important A. I, 30—2 292 sq.; (adj.) Miln. I, 47. —diṭṭhika having the right belief D. I, 139; A. II, 89; 220 sq.; III, 115, 138; IV, 290; V, 124 sq.; S. IV, 322. —dvayatānupassin duly considering both-i.e. misery with its origin, the destruction of misery with the path, respectively Sn. p. 140. —dhārā a heavy shower S. V, 379. —paṭipatti right mental disposition A. I, 69; Nett 27; Miln. 97; sammāpaṭipadā Pug. 49 sq.; DhA. IV, 127; sammāpaṭipanna rightly disposed, having the right view D. I, 8, 55; Pug. 49 sq. —passaṃ viewing the matter in the right way S. III, 51; IV, 142. —pāsa (Sk. śamyāprāsa, but BSk. śamyaprāśa Divy 634) a kind of sacrifice Sn. 303; A. II, 42; IV, 151; S. I, 76; It. 21; J. IV, 302; SnA 321. Cp. sammā1. —manasikāra right, careful, thought D. I, 13; DA. I, 104. —vattanā strict, proper, conduct Vin. I, 46, 50; II, 5. —vācā right speech Vin. I, 10; DA. I, 314; definition D. II, 312; Dhs. 299; (adj.) speaking properly M. I, 42; A. II, 89. —vāyāma right effort Vin. I, 10; Dhs. 13, 22, 302; definition D. II, 312; adj. M. I, 42; A. II, 89. —vimutta right emancipation A. I, 292; °vimutti the same D. II, 217; A. II, 196, 222; (adj.) M. I, 42; A. II, 89. —saṅkappa right resolve, right intention Dh. 12; Vin. I, 10; Dhs. 21, 298; definition D. II, 312; (adj.) M. I, 42; A. II, 89. —sati right memory, right mindfulness, self-possession Vin. I, 10; Dhs. 23, 303; definition D. II, 313; (adj.) M. I, 42; A. II, 89. —samādhi right concentration, the last stage of the noble eightfold path Vin. I, 10; Dhs. 24, 304; definition D. II, 313; adj. M. I, 12; A. II, 89. —sampassaṃ having the right view S. IV, 142. —sambuddha perfectly enlightened, a universal Buddha Vin. I, 5; D. I, 49; Dh. 187; J. I, 44; DhA. I, 445; III, 241; VbhA. 436, etc. —sambodhi perfect enlightenment, supreme Buddhaship Vin. I, 11; D. II, 83; S. I, 68, etc. (Page 695)

2) Sammā, 1 (cp. Sk. śamyā) a pin of the yoke Abhp 449; a kind of sacrificial instrument SnA 321 (sammaṃ ettha pāsantī ti sammāpāso; and sātrā-yāgass’etaṃ adhivacanaṃ). Cp. Weber Indische Streifen I. 36, and sammāpāsa, below. (Page 695)

— or —

1) Samma, 3 a cymbal Miln. 60; Dhs. 621; J. I, 3; DhsA. 319. ‹-› Otherwise as °tāḷa a kind of cymbal Th. 1, 893, 911; Vv 353; VvA. 161; J. VI, 60; 277 (-l-). (Page 695)

2) Samma, 2 (samyak) see sammā. (Page 695)

3) Samma, 1 (as to etym. Andersen, P. Reader II. 263 quite plausibly connects it with Vedic śam (indecl.) “hail, ” which is often used in a vocative sense, esp. in combination śam ca yos ca “hail & blessing!”, but also suggests relation to sammā. Other suggestions see Andersen, s. v. ) a term of familiar address D. I, 49, 225; DA. I, 151; Vin. II, 161; J. I, 59; PvA. 204; plur. sammā Vin. II, 161. (Page 695)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃmā (संमा).—3 Ā., 2 P.

1) To measure.

2) To make equal, equalize; see संमित (saṃmita).

3) To liken, compare; न वै नृभिर्नरदेवं पराख्यं संमातुमर्हस्यविपक्वबुद्धे (na vai nṛbhirnaradevaṃ parākhyaṃ saṃmātumarhasyavipakvabuddhe) Bhāgavata 1.18.42.

4) To be comprised or contained in; मृणालसूत्रमपि ते न संमाति स्तनान्तरे (mṛṇālasūtramapi te na saṃmāti stanāntare) Subhāṣ.

5) To distribute, grant, bestow (Ved.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃmā (संमा).—[feminine] equality in weight or number.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃmā (संमा):—[=sam-mā] a. sam-√3. [Parasmaipada] [Ātmanepada] -māti, -mimīte, to measure out, measure, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

—to make of the same measure, make equal, equalize (in size, number, quantity etc.), [Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] ;

—to compare with ([instrumental case]), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa];

—to mete out, distribute, bestow, [Ṛg-veda iii, 1, 15; v, 4, 2];

— (with śravāṃsi) to direct one’s course or flight towards, [ib. iii, 34, 22];

—to be of the same capacity with, be contained in ([locative case]), [Kuvalayānanda] :

—[Passive voice] -mīyate, to be of the same measure, be contained in ([locative case]), [Nīlakaṇṭha]

2) [v.s. ...] b f. equality in size or number, symmetry, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃmā (संमा) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saṃmā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Saṃmā (संमा) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Saṃmā.

2) Samma (सम्म) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śram.

3) Samma (सम्म) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Sarman.

4) Samma (सम्म) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Samyañc.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śamma (ಶಮ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] shelter; protection; refuge; safety.

2) [noun] joy; bliss; comfort; delight; happiness.

3) [noun] the quality of being auspicious, propitious; auspiciousness; propitiousness.

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Samma (ಸಮ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] shelter; protection; refuge; safety.

2) [noun] joy; bliss; comfort; delight; happiness.

3) [noun] the quality of being auspicious, propitious; auspiciousness; propitiousness.

--- OR ---

Samma (ಸಮ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] the soft and flexible external covering or integument of an animal body; the skin.

2) [noun] the skin of an animal, with the hair removed, prepared for use by tanning or a similar process designed to preserve it against decay and make it pliable or supple when dry; leather.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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