Samkoca, Saṅkoca, Śaṅkoca, Saṃkoca, Shankoca, Sankoca: 24 definitions


Samkoca means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śaṅkoca can be transliterated into English as Sankoca or Shankoca, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Shankocha.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Saṅkoca (सङ्कोच).—One of the Rākṣasas, who, in ancient days ruled the earth and ultimately died. The story of Saṅkoca was told by Bhīṣma to Yudhiṣṭhira to prove the truth that even the greatest and most powerful has, one day or other, to quit life and die. Among such great ones are included Pṛthu, Aila, Maya, Bhauma, Naraka, Śambara, Hayagrīva, Pulomā, Svarbhānu, Prahlāda, Namuci, Dakṣa, Vipracitti, Virocana, Suhotra, Vṛṣa, Vṛṣabha, Kapilāśva, Virūpa, Bāṇa, Kārtasvara, and Viśvadaṃṣṭra. Though all of them were once emperors they had to give room to the next generation. Bhīṣma, on his bed of arrows, was thus describing the transience of life. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 277).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Saṅkoca (सङ्कोच) refers to “hesitation” [?], according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.25 (“The seven celestial sages test Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Pārvatī said to the seven Sages: “O great sages, listen to my words with hearty affection. I am saying only what I thought in my own way. On hearing my words you will laugh at me considering my proposal impossible. O Brahmins, I hesitate in revealing it [i.e., saṅkocasaṃkoco varṇanādviprā] but what can I do? [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Saṃkoca (संकोच):—Contraction of body parts.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Saṃkoca (संकोच) refers to “contracted”, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, as the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā commentary explains the name of Kubjikā or Kubjinī (lit. “the bent over one”): “[...] Or else, (one can say that) she is crooked in all circumstances (sarvatra) and (as such) is the seed-syllable. Or else (one can say that) she is in a condition of oneness (aikyabhūtā) or, she pervades everywhere (sarvagati) in (her) contracted state (saṃkoca-vṛtti). She who possesses (all these states and forms of being) is Kubjikā”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Samkoca in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Saṃkoca (संकोच) refers to “closening” (the circles of hunters), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “Hunting by means of artifice (kālyā) is of four kinds [...]. (c) Mahākālyā is that in which a large number of men encircle a forest and then coming in closer circles (saṃkoca) [saṃkocamāgataiḥ] ultimately stop the flight of animals of various kinds and kill them by swords and other weapons indiscriminately in all possible ways. This can be ‘played’ by kings and noblemen only”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Saṃkoca (संकोच) refers to “that which has binding with”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Indeed, alone, the self roams about in the impassable wilderness of the world which is full of great misfortune [com.mahā-kaṣṭa-saṃkoca—‘that which has binding with great misery’] [and] inflamed by the fire of suffering. The same [self] always takes hold of the interior of a body entirely to experience the good and bad result developed from its own action by itself”.

Synonyms: Saṃkīrṇa.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Sankoca in India is the name of a plant defined with Crocus sativus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Safran officinarum Medik. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Gard. Chron. (1879)
· Irid. Gen. (1827)
· Regnum Vegetabile, or ‘a Series of Handbooks for the Use of Plant Taxonomists and Plant Geographers’ (1993)
· Nomenclator Botanicus (1840)
· Gardeners Dictionary, ed. 8 (1768)
· Illustrations of the Botany of the Himalayan Mountains (1834)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Sankoca, for example side effects, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, chemical composition, diet and recipes, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samkoca in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

saṅkoca : (m.) contraction; grimace; distortion.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Saṅkoca, (saṃ+koca, of kuñc: see kuñcita) contraction (as a sign of anger or annoyance), grimace (mukha°) PvA. 103; also as hattha°, etc. at PvA. 124. (Page 663)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṅkōca (संकोच).—m (S) Drawing together, in, or up, contracting, closing in, shrinking: also drawn-together state, shrunken or gathered-up state, contractedness. 2 Narrowness or straitness (of room or space), confinedness: also scantiness or smallness of capacity (of a room, vessel, or other receptacle). 3 Difficulty from confinedness or lack of room; sense of pinchedness or pressure; as malā ēthēṃ saṃ0 hōtō svastha lihavata nāhīṃ svastha basavata nāhīṃ. 4 fig. Restrained or drawn-in state of the heart and affections, reservedness, reserve, closeness. 5 Repression (repressed state) from modesty or from shame, abashedness. v vāṭa, hō.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saṅkōca (संकोच).—m Contracting, shrinking; shrun- ken or gathered up state, contracted- ness. Narrowness or straightness (of room or space). Difficulty from lack of room; sense of pinchedness or pressure. Fig. Reservedness, reserve, closeness. Repressed state from mo- desty &c.; abashedness. v vāṭa, hō.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śaṅkoca (शङ्कोच).—A skate-fish.

Derivable forms: śaṅkocaḥ (शङ्कोचः).

See also (synonyms): śaṅkuci, śaṅkoci.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃkoca (संकोच).—

1) Contraction, shrinking up.

2) Abridgment, diminution, compression.

3) Terror, fear.

4) Shutting up, closing.

5) Binding.

6) Crouching down, humbling one's self; त्वयेयं पृथिवी लब्धा न संकोचेन चाप्युत (tvayeyaṃ pṛthivī labdhā na saṃkocena cāpyuta) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.14.18.

7) A kind of skate-fish.

-cam Saffron.

Derivable forms: saṃkocaḥ (संकोचः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṅkoca (शङ्कोच).—m.

(-caḥ) A scate-fish. E. śaki-uc; also śaṅku, śaṅkuci and śaṅkīci .

--- OR ---

Saṅkoca (सङ्कोच).—m.

(-caḥ) 1. Shutting, closing, contracting, contraction. 2. Binding, tying. 3. Abridgment, diminution. 4. Terror, fear. 5. A sort of fish, a scate, (Raia Sancura, Ham.) n.

(-caṃ) Saffron. E. sam before kuc to contract, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃkoca (संकोच).—i. e. sam-kuc + a, I. m. 1. Contracting, contraction, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 20 (kaurmaṃ saṃkocam āsthāya, Contracting himself like a tortoise). 2. Diminution, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 105. 3. Fear, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 14. 4. Shutting, closing (as a flower), Naiṣ. 22, 43 (Sch.). 5. Tieing, binding. 6. A fish, Raia Sancara Ham. Ii. n. Saffron.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃkoca (संकोच).—[masculine] shrinking, contraction, decrease.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṅkoca (शङ्कोच):—[from śaṅku] m. = śaṅkuci, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃkoca (संकोच):—[=saṃ-koca] [from saṃ-kuñc] a m. contraction, shrinking together, compression, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] shutting up, closing (of the eyes), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] crouching down, cowering, humbling one’s self, shyness, fear ([accusative] with √kṛ, ‘to become shy or modest’), [Harivaṃśa]

4) [v.s. ...] abridgment, diminution, limitation, restriction, [Śaṃkarācārya; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

5) [v.s. ...] drying up (of a lake), [Kāvya literature]

6) [v.s. ...] binding, tying, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a sort of skate fish, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of an Asura, [Mahābhārata]

9) [v.s. ...] n. saffron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [=saṃ-koca] b etc. See saṃ-√kuc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaṅkoca (शङ्कोच):—(caḥ) 1. m. A scate fish.

2) Saṅkoca (सङ्कोच):—[sa-ṅkoca] (caḥ) 1. n. Saffron. m. Binding; contracting; a scate fish.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃkoca (संकोच) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saṃkoa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samkoca in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Samkoca in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Saṃkoca (संकोच) [Also spelled sankoch]:—(nm) hitch, hesitation; shyness; contraction ~[śīla] shy, bashful; reserved; hesitant; hence ~[śīlatā] (nf).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Saṃkōca (ಸಂಕೋಚ):—[adjective] shrunk; contracted.

--- OR ---

Saṃkōca (ಸಂಕೋಚ):—

1) [noun] the act of becoming smaller in size; a shrinking; contraction.

2) [noun] fear; timidness.

3) [noun] shyness; coyness; bashfulness.

4) [noun] a kind of fish.

5) [noun] the dried, aromatic stigmas of the perennial plant Crocus sativus of Iridaceae family, used in flavoring and colouring foods, and formerly in medicine; saffron powder.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Saṅkoca (सङ्कोच):—n. 1. contraction; 2. embarrassment; bashfulness; diffidence; shyness; hesitation; modesty; 3. fear;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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