Rajya, aka: Rājya; 10 Definition(s)

Introduction

Rajya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Rājya (राज्य) refers to a “kingdom”, obtainable through the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] a person desirous of obtaining a kingdom (rājya) shall propitiate Lord Śiva with the worship of a hundred million earthen liṅgas. Lord Śiva confers a kingdom on the devotee certainly. He shall use Śivaliṅga for worship. Flowers shall be used. Unsplit rice grains mixed with sandal paste shall be used. The ceremonial ablution shall be performed. The mantra used shall be pleasing. Bilva leaves are very excellent. Or he can use loose petals or full lotuses or Śaṅkha flowers according to ancient authorities. The worship is divine and accords pleasures and achievement of desires both here and hereafter, He shall not omit other items such as incense, lamps, food-offerings, Arghya, Ārārtika (waving of lights), Pradakṣiṇā, Namaskāra, Kṣamāpana (craving forgiveness and Visarjana) the ritualistic dismissal). At the end he shall feed other devotees”.

Source: archive.org: Siva Purana - English Translation

Rājya (राज्य).—A kingdom; if a king has no legitimate successor, it changes hands; ruled by ministry in the king's absence; is concerned with two main things (bāhya) or foreign affairs and (abhyantara) or home policy;1 of Pṛthu, described.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 50. 29-51; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 94; 112. 14. 46.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 1. 11; 10. 10-35.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Rājya (राज्य) refers to a “state” according to the science of ancient Indian Society and Polity (nītiśāstra).—A ‘state’, rājya, has several dimensions—the duties / rights of the ruled and the rulers, the rules of governance and the rules that govern the rulers and the ruled. A state is constituted by its several ‘limbs’. Thus Kauṭilya (3rd century BCE), the renowned Indian theoretician of polity, says that a State has seven limbs: the king, the ministers, the country, the forts, the treasury, the army, and the allies. This list can vary according to the form of government.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Society State and Polity: A Survey
Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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India history and geogprahy

Rājya (राज्य) refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). Rājya means a kingdom, country, realm (=rāṣṭra). In the Vedic period the term ‘rājya’ regularly denoted sovereign power. In addition to this there were other expressions referring to sovereign power. In the ritual of the Rājasūya, the Aitareya-brāhmaṇa (VIII, 12.4.5) gives a whole series of terms: Rājya, Sāmrājya, Bhaujya, Svārājya, Vairājya, Pārameṣṭhya, and Māhārājya (cf. Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra, XVII.16,3).

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Rājya (राज्य) refers to an “administrative division”.—The Vākāṭakas of the fourth and fifth centuries a.d. showed a preference for the term rājya to denote an administrative division. Two of these divisions are known fromcontemporary records, e.g. the Bojakaṭarājya, corresponding to northern Berār between the rivers Taptī and Pūrṇā, and the Ārammirājya, possibly coinciding with the territory round Arvi in the Wardhā District. Another division apparently lay between the Ajanta range and the river Pengaṅgā, and had its centre at Vatsagulma or Bāsim. The rājya seems to have been subdivided into bhogas or bhāgas. Two of these, the Hiraṇyapura-bhoga and Beṇṇākārpara-bhāga, are known from inscriptions.

Source: Early History Of The Deccan Pts.1 To 6: Principal Administrative Divisions from the Rise of the Sātavāhanas

Rājya.—(IE 8-4; EI 19), district or province of a kingdom; (SITI; ASLV), the biggest administrative unit of the Vijaya- nagara empire; same as pīṭhika; also means ‘sovereignty’. Note: rājya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

rājya (राज्य).—n (S) The office or functions of a king. 2 Administration or exercise of sovereignty or government. 3 A kingdom, a monarchy, a principality.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rājya (राज्य).—n A kingdom; exercise of govern- ment.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rājya (राज्य).—[rājño bhāvaḥ karma vā, rājan-yat nalopaḥ]

1) Royalty, sovereignty; royal authority; राज्येन किं तद् विपरीतवृत्तेः (rājyena kiṃ tad viparītavṛtteḥ) R. 2.53;4.1.

2) A kingdom, country, an empire; R. 1.58.

3) Rule, reign, government, administration of a kingdom.

Derivable forms: rājyam (राज्यम्).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rājya (राज्य).—n.

(-jyaṃ) 1. A government, a country, a principality, a kingdom. 2. Administration or exercise of sovereignty or government. E. rāja for rājan a prince, and yat or yak aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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