Rajya, Rājya: 24 definitions


Rajya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Rajy.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Rājya (राज्य) refers to a “kingdom”, obtainable through the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] a person desirous of obtaining a kingdom (rājya) shall propitiate Lord Śiva with the worship of a hundred million earthen liṅgas. Lord Śiva confers a kingdom on the devotee certainly. He shall use Śivaliṅga for worship. Flowers shall be used. Unsplit rice grains mixed with sandal paste shall be used. The ceremonial ablution shall be performed. The mantra used shall be pleasing. Bilva leaves are very excellent. Or he can use loose petals or full lotuses or Śaṅkha flowers according to ancient authorities. The worship is divine and accords pleasures and achievement of desires both here and hereafter, He shall not omit other items such as incense, lamps, food-offerings, Arghya, Ārārtika (waving of lights), Pradakṣiṇā, Namaskāra, Kṣamāpana (craving forgiveness and Visarjana) the ritualistic dismissal). At the end he shall feed other devotees”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Rājya (राज्य).—A kingdom; if a king has no legitimate successor, it changes hands; ruled by ministry in the king's absence; is concerned with two main things (bāhya) or foreign affairs and (abhyantara) or home policy;1 of Pṛthu, described.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 50. 29-51; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 94; 112. 14. 46.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 1. 11; 10. 10-35.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Society State and Polity: A Survey

Rājya (राज्य) refers to a “state” according to the science of ancient Indian Society and Polity (nītiśāstra).—A ‘state’, rājya, has several dimensions—the duties / rights of the ruled and the rulers, the rules of governance and the rules that govern the rulers and the ruled. A state is constituted by its several ‘limbs’. Thus Kauṭilya (3rd century BCE), the renowned Indian theoretician of polity, says that a State has seven limbs: the king, the ministers, the country, the forts, the treasury, the army, and the allies. This list can vary according to the form of government.

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Rājya (राज्य) refers to a “king”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “One should institute a great sacrifice at times of great fear, when in conflict with a powerful enemy, when the land is afflicted with drought, when locusts and soldiers come (to ravage it), when (one seeks to) remedy disease and suffering, when there is a fight between relatives for kingdom, when the king is deposed [i.e., rājya-bhraṃśa], during solitary combat in a great battle, in order to (get a) son, when one fails to gets a young virgin (bride), during a marriage, in order to gain victory, (or) when a fort is under attack. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Rājya (राज्य) refers to the “sovereignty”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 226).—There are apparently several Tantric rites that Bāṇa pejoratively associates with the priest: he, “the ageing Draviḍa religious man” “demeans Durgā with his prayers for the boon of sovereignty (rājya-vara) over the Southern lands”; “he had copied a hymn to Durgā on a strip of cloth”, “he had collected palm-leaf manuscripts of spells, Tantras and jugglery the letters of which were written in red lac and fumigated with smoke” [...].

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: University of Vienna: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Rājya (राज्य) refers to a “kingdom”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “One desirous of a kingdom (rājya-arthin), one who has been deprived of it or one conquered by [other] rulers, after having paid respect with large masses of wealth to the supreme Guru, the giver of Sudarśana’s Yantra, considering [him] superior to all, should propitiate God Nārāyaṇa - who has large eyes like lotuses, is [of] dark [complexion], clad in a yellow garment, adorned with all ornaments and with four arms - following the rules given by the teacher. [...]”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Rājya (राज्य) refers to “kingship”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “[...] (177) The Lord, the protector, ascending to the height of eighty palm trees (tāla) in the open space, said to the king (Puṇyālaṃkāra): ‘You should listen my highest dharma, and practice it. Desire is impermanent and so is kingship (rājya). Life (jīva) is like a dew-drop on the grass, and in the same way, the pleasure of passion is like a dream. Which wise man would produce joy in this? [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Rājya (राज्य) refers to “vitality”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “You must understand that the body is overcome by disease, youth is overcome by old age, vitality [com.—rājya] is oppressed by decay and life is oppressed by death”.

Synonyms: Aiśvarya, Ādhipatya.

2) Rājya (राज्य) refers to the “empire (of knowledge)”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “Alone [the living soul] who is very wise becomes a god [like] a bee on a lotus [like] the face of a woman . Alone, being cut by swords, he appropriates a hellish embryo. Alone the one who is ignorant, driven by the fire of anger, etc., does action. Alone [the living soul] enjoys the empire of knowledge (jñāna-rājya) in the avoidance of all mental blindness. [Thus ends the reflection on] solitariness”.

Synonyms: Sāmrājya.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Rājya (राज्य) refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). Rājya means a kingdom, country, realm (=rāṣṭra). In the Vedic period the term ‘rājya’ regularly denoted sovereign power. In addition to this there were other expressions referring to sovereign power. In the ritual of the Rājasūya, the Aitareya-brāhmaṇa (VIII, 12.4.5) gives a whole series of terms: Rājya, Sāmrājya, Bhaujya, Svārājya, Vairājya, Pārameṣṭhya, and Māhārājya (cf. Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra, XVII.16,3).

Source: Early History Of The Deccan Pts.1 To 6: Principal Administrative Divisions from the Rise of the Sātavāhanas

Rājya (राज्य) refers to an “administrative division”.—The Vākāṭakas of the fourth and fifth centuries a.d. showed a preference for the term rājya to denote an administrative division. Two of these divisions are known fromcontemporary records, e.g. the Bojakaṭarājya, corresponding to northern Berār between the rivers Taptī and Pūrṇā, and the Ārammirājya, possibly coinciding with the territory round Arvi in the Wardhā District. Another division apparently lay between the Ajanta range and the river Pengaṅgā, and had its centre at Vatsagulma or Bāsim. The rājya seems to have been subdivided into bhogas or bhāgas. Two of these, the Hiraṇyapura-bhoga and Beṇṇākārpara-bhāga, are known from inscriptions.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Rājya.—(IE 8-4; EI 19), district or province of a kingdom; (SITI; ASLV), the biggest administrative unit of the Vijaya- nagara empire; same as pīṭhika; also means ‘sovereignty’. Note: rājya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rājya (राज्य).—n (S) The office or functions of a king. 2 Administration or exercise of sovereignty or government. 3 A kingdom, a monarchy, a principality.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

rājya (राज्य).—n A kingdom; exercise of govern- ment.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rājya (राज्य).—[rājño bhāvaḥ karma vā, rājan-yat nalopaḥ]

1) Royalty, sovereignty; royal authority; राज्येन किं तद् विपरीतवृत्तेः (rājyena kiṃ tad viparītavṛtteḥ) R. 2.53;4.1.

2) A kingdom, country, an empire; R. 1.58.

3) Rule, reign, government, administration of a kingdom.

Derivable forms: rājyam (राज्यम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rājya (राज्य).—n.

(-jyaṃ) 1. A government, a country, a principality, a kingdom. 2. Administration or exercise of sovereignty or government. E. rāja for rājan a prince, and yat or yak aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rājya (राज्य).—i. e. rājan + ya, n. 1. A government, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 265. 2. A kingdom, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 22; [Pañcatantra] 202, 19. 3. Exercise of sovereignty, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 242. 4. Administration.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rājya (राज्य).—[adjective] fit to reign, royal; [neuter] (also rājya or rājya) kingship, sovereignty, reign, kingdom, country.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rājya (राज्य):—[from rāj] mfn. kingly, princely, royal, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] n. (also rājya or rājyā) royalty, kingship, sovereignty, empire (‘over’ [locative case] or [compound]; ‘of’ [genitive case] or [compound]; [accusative] with √kṛ or [Causal] of √kṛ or with upa-√ās or vi-√dhā, to exercise government, rule, govern), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] kingdom, country, realm (= rāṣṭra), [ib. 1.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rājya (राज्य):—(jyaṃ) 1. n. A government, a kingdom; administration.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Rājya (राज्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Rajja.

[Sanskrit to German]

Rajya in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Rājya (राज्य) [Also spelled rajy]:—(nm) the state; kingdom; polity,rule, reign; ~[karttā] a ruler; -[kāla] reign; rule; -[kṣamā] clemency; amnesty; [kṣetra] (state) territory; expanse of the state; ~[cyuta] dethroned, deposed; ~[cyuti] dethronement, deposition; -[taṃtra] polity; -[tyāga] abdication; ~[tva] statehood; -[droha] sedition; ~[drohī] a seditionist; -[pada] statehood; ~[pāla] a governor; -[pramukha] head of a/the state; -[bhaṃga] breakdown of law, anarchy; -[viplava] coup d'etat; —[vyavasthā] polity, state system; —[sabhā] Upper House of the Indian Parliament, council of states.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Rājya (ರಾಜ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] a country headed by a king or queen; monarchy.

2) [noun] any of the constituents of Indian Republic, having a government that is independent in many respects, and also having definite geographical boundaries; a state.

3) [noun] the governance of a country by a king or a queen; monarchy.

4) [noun] governance of a country in gen.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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