Pusta, Pushta, Pustā: 24 definitions

Introduction:

Pusta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Pusht.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Pusta (पुस्त) refers to “model work” and represents one of the categories of nepathya, or “costumes and make-up”, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The perfection of Nepathya forms the main concern of the Āhāryābhinaya, or “extraneous representation”, a critical component for a successful dramatic play.

Pusta (model work) is of three different types:

  1. sandhima (the joined object),
  2. vyājima (the indicating object),
  3. ceṣṭima (moving object).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “hills, carriages, lofty palaces, shields, armours, banner-staffs and elephants which are constructed for use in a dramatic performance are called ‘model works’ (pusta)”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Pusta (पुस्त) refers to the “image” (made of papier-mâché), according to Abhinava’s Tantrāloka verse 6.2-4.—Accordingly, “The places are said to be of three kinds: in the vital breath, in the body and outside (the body). The breath is five-fold in the body. (Thus, place) is of two kinds, according to whether it is outside (the body) or within (it). The external (places) are the maṇḍala, the sacrificial ground (sthaṇḍila), the (sacrificial) vessel (pātra), the rosary (akṣasūtra), the book (pustaka), the Liṅga, the skull (tūra), the cloth (paṭa), the image (made of papier-mâché) (pusta), the idol (pratimā), and the divine effigy (mūrti). Thus the outer (place) is of eleven kinds (each which are of) countless varieties. ”.

2) Pusta (पुस्त) refers to the “book” and as one of the weapons (attributes) of Goddess Kubjikā symbolizes “correct understanding of the scriptures”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “(Now) I will tell (you about) the great weapons of that (goddess) Kubjikā. [...] A correct knowledge of mantra arises by means of the bell and a correct understanding of the scriptures from the book [i.e., pusta]. Control (of others is acquired) by means of the bow and the great accomplishment of (all) the weapons in the Mahāmata by means of the skull”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Puṣṭa (पुष्ट) refers to “good” (e.g., ‘that which brings good rain’), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 9), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If Venus should enter the constellation of Mṛgaśīrṣa, juice and crops will suffer; if she should enter the constellation of Ārdrā, the people of Kośala and of Kaliṅga will suffer and there will be abundance of rain. If Venus should enter the constellation of Punarvasu, the people of Aśmaka and of Vidarbha will become lawless. If Venus should enter the constellation of Puṣya, there will be good rain [i.e., puṣṭa-vṛṣṭipuṣṭā vṛṣṭir...]; singing and dancing parties will suffer”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Puṣṭa (पुष्ट) refers to “prosperity”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.7cd-17ab, while describing the worship of Bhairavī and Bhairava]—“[...] One should always worship [in times of] peace and prosperity (puṣṭaśāntau puṣṭau sadā yajet), to suppress sickness and vice, [which are] the root cause of wasting away, [and] for the protection of cows, Brahmins, and men. One meditates on [Bhairava] as having equal radiance to snow, jasmine, the moon, or pearls. [He is] as clear as the curved moon and similar to immovable quartz. [He is] clear like the burning of the end of time, resembles a flower on the sacred tree, appears red like innumerable suns or, rather, red like a lotus. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Puṣṭa (पुष्ट) refers to “effective (methods)” (of conquering the mind), according to the Haṭhapradīpikā of Svātmārāma: an influential 15th-century Sanskrit manual on Hatha-Yoga dealing with techniques to channel one’s vital energy.—Accordingly, while discussing methods for conquering the mind: “Acquiring spiritual knowledge, associating with the wise, abandoning habitual tendencies and stopping the movement of the breath; according to tradition, [all] these methods are effective (puṣṭa) in conquering the mind. The [mind] is quickly overcome by these [methods of restraint] like the dust of the earth by streams [of water]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Pusta (पुस्त) refers to a “scripture” and represents one of the items held in the left hand of Heruka: one of the main deities of the Herukamaṇḍala described in the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Heruka is positioned in the Lotus (padma) at the center; He is the origin of all heroes; He has 17 faces (with three eyes on each) and 76 arms [holding, for example, pusta]; He is half black and half green in color; He is dancing on a flaming sun placed on Bhairava and Kālarātrī.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Puṣṭa (पुष्ट) refers to “joyful”, according to Kuladatta’s Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, a text within Tantric Buddhism representing a construction manual for monasteries.—Accordingly, [vanayātrā in chapter 5]—“When the wood [to be used for the construction of a monastery] or the stones [to be used for the construction of a caitya] are brought into the city, [the Ācārya] should send a message [that these materials are being brought into the city] to the king or the citizens. He should make people with joyful minds (puṣṭa-citta) whose bodies quiver with excitement carry [these materials]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture

Pusta (पुस्त) (Sanskrit; in Prakrit: Pottha) refers to “images made of stucco-work”.—Images of Tīrthaṃkaras were made of stones, metals, wood, clay, precious gems, jewels or semi-precious stones. Speaking about sthāpāna or installation of a symbol for a Guru during his absence, the Jaina canonical text Anuyogadvāra-sūtra says that it may be made of wood, stucco-work (pusta-karma / pottha-kamma), painting, plaster, flower-work or knitting, or prepared by wrapped cloth or stuffed cast, repousse or beaten metal work.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pusta.—(CII 4), painting. Note: pusta is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

puṣṭa (पुष्ट).—a (S) Fat, plump, fleshy, full-fed. 2 p S Nourished, cherished, fed.

--- OR ---

pusta (पुस्त).—f (pṛṣṭha S through P) The back of a card, or esp. of a hand of cards. 2 m A generation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

puṣṭa (पुष्ट).—f Fat, plump. Nourished, fed.

--- OR ---

pusta (पुस्त).—f The back of a card. m A generation.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Puṣṭa (पुष्ट).—p. p. [puṣ-kta]

1) Nourished, fed, reared, brought up.

2) Thriving, growing, strong, fat.

3) Tended, cared for.

4) Rich, magnificently provided.

5) Complete, perfect.

6) Full-sounding, loud; स्वरेण हृष्टपुष्टेन तुष्टाव मधुसूदनम् (svareṇa hṛṣṭapuṣṭena tuṣṭāva madhusūdanam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.47.14.

7) Eminent.

-ṣṭaḥ Name of Viṣṇu.

-ṣṭam 1 Nourishment.

2) Acquisition, gain (Ved.).

--- OR ---

Pusta (पुस्त).—

1) Plastering, painting, anointing.

2) Working in clay, modeling.

3) Anything made of clay, wood or metal.

4) A book, manuscript; also पुस्ता-स्ती (pustā-stī).

Derivable forms: pustam (पुस्तम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pusta (पुस्त).—(°-), according to Tibetan letter (of the alphabet); perhaps more generally (painted) figure (for decoration; in Sanskrit said to mean modelled figure): Lalitavistara 95.12 (prose) tāni (elephants, perhaps also other animals born at the same time with the Bodhisattva) sarvāṇi rājñā Śuddhodanena pusta-varopetāni (Tibetan sna graṅs yi ger bris te, which Foucaux 97 renders marqués d'un grand nombre de peintures diverses) kumārasya krīḍārthaṃ dattāny abhūvan; Fou- caux renders the Sanskrit marqués (à la trompe) de belles lettres peintes. (In Sanskrit manuscript, book, = the more usual pustaka.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṣṭa (पुष्ट).—mfn.

(-ṣṭaḥ-ṣṭā-ṣṭaṃ) 1. Nourished, cherished, 2. Thriving, strong. 3. Rich, amply provided. 4. Complete, perfect. 5. Full-sounding. E. puṣ to cherish, aff. kta.

--- OR ---

Pusta (पुस्त).—mfn.

(-staḥ-stā-staṃ) 1. Filled. 2. Covered. n.

(-staṃ) 1. Smearing, anointing, painting, plastering, &c. 2. Any thing made of metal, wood or clay, &c. nf. (-staṃ-stī) A book, a manuscript. E. pusta to bind, ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pusta (पुस्त).—I. m. and n. A book. Ii. n. Working in clay, modeling, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 34, 172.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṣṭa (पुष्ट).—[adjective] having thrived; nourished, fat, strong; abundant, rich in, furnished with; [neuter] wealth, prosperity.

--- OR ---

Pusta (पुस्त).—[masculine] ā [feminine] manuscript, book.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Puṣṭa (पुष्ट):—[from puṣ] mfn. nourished, cherished, well-fed, thriving, strong, fat, full, complete, perfect, abundant, rich, great, ample, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] rich in, blessed with ([instrumental case]), [Daśakumāra-carita]

3) [v.s. ...] full-sounding, loud, [Harivaṃśa]

4) [v.s. ...] burnt, [Horace H. Wilson] ([wrong reading] for pluṣṭa?)

5) [v.s. ...] incubated, brooded over, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

6) [v.s. ...] n. growth, increase, gain, acquisition, wealth, property ([especially] of children or cattle), [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Atharva-veda]

7) Pusta (पुस्त):—m. n. ([gana] ardharcādi) working in clay, modeling, Kathā.

8) mf. a manuscript, book, [Varāha-mihira] (cf. below), [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

9) mfn. covered, filled, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Puṣṭa (पुष्ट):—[(ṣṭaḥ-ṣṭā-ṣṭaṃ) a.] Nourished; burnt.

2) Pusta (पुस्त):—(staṃ) 1. n. Smearing. f. n. (staṃ-stī) A book. a. Filled; covered.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Puṣṭa (पुष्ट) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Puṭṭha, Puṭṭhi, Puttha, Putthaya, Pottha, Potthaga, Potthaya, Posia.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pusta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Puśta (पुश्त) [Also spelled pusht]:—(nf) the back; back portion; generation; ancestry; —[darapuśta] from generation to generation; hereditarily.

2) Puśtā (पुश्ता):—(nm) an embankment; buttress; the back of the binding of a book etc; ~[baṃdī] strutting; embankment.

3) Puṣṭa (पुष्ट) [Also spelled pusht]:—(a) strong, robust, sturdy; stiff; well-built; shapely, nourished; mature; confirmed (as —[salācāra]); seasoned (with); hence ~[] (uf)/[tva] (nm).

4) Pusta (पुस्त) [Also spelled pust]:—(nf) see [puśta]; a book; ~[kāra] the writer of a book, author.

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Puṣṭa (ಪುಷ್ಟ):—

1) [adjective] nourished, cherished or fed well.

2) [adjective] strong; powerful.

3) [adjective] abundant; plentiful; copious.

4) [adjective] rich; wealthy.

5) [adjective] excellent; superior.

--- OR ---

Puṣṭa (ಪುಷ್ಟ):—

1) [noun] the quality or condition of being copious; copiousness; plentifulness.

2) [noun] a strong, powerful man.

--- OR ---

Pusta (ಪುಸ್ತ):—

1) [noun] the act of plastering, painting or anointing.

2) [noun] that which is written; a writing; an article; a book.

3) [noun] anything made of clay, wood or metal.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Puṣṭa (पुष्ट):—n. well-nourished; healthy; strong-bodied; plump; well looked after;

2) Pusta (पुस्त):—n. 1. manuscript; hand-written book; 2. craftsman; artisan;

3) Pustā (पुस्ता):—n. 1. generation; race; 2. ancestors; forefathers; 3. succession;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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