Purvaka, Pūrvaka: 12 definitions


Purvaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Purvak.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Pūrvaka (पूर्वक) refers to “being accompanied with”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.7.—Accordingly, after the Goddess (Umā/Śivā) incarnated as Pārvatī by becoming the daughter of Menā:—“[...] The goddess of great brilliance assumed the form of her baby child in front of Menā and began to cry in accordance with the ways of the world. [...] Himavat came to the outer gate of the palace and joined the festivities. With a delighted mind he distributed monetary gifts to the beggars. In an auspicious hour, in the company of the sages, Himavat named his daughter Kālī and assigned other pleasing names to her. He gave charitable gifts to the brahmins out of love and respect. Varieties of festivities were gone through with suitable music [i.e., gāna-pūrvaka]. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Pūrvaka (पूर्वक) refers to the “first (argument)”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī 2.138.—Accordingly, “[...] [The latter argument] completely eradicates the very nature of the object of knowledge—that is to say, the external [object]—by showing that [this contradictory nature can]not exist. For the first (pūrvaka) refuting argument functions while completely disregarding the nature of the object of knowledge—[i.e.] whether it has parts or is devoid of parts, whether it is contradicted or not [by this or that particular property]—rather, [it functions] through a global refutation ([lit. ‘by devouring everything’]), thus: ‘[What is] distinct from the manifesting consciousness is not manifest’”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Pūrvaka (पूर्वक) refers to “former (Tathāgatas, etc.)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [After the Vajrapāṇi asked the Bhagavān for instructions for protection of crops]: “Then the Bhagavān addressed Vajrapāṇi, the Lord of the Guhyakas, ‘Vajrapāṇi, there is the dhāraṇī called the Nāga Assailing and Impeding Vajra, that is the seal of the heart of the Tathāgatas , uttered by former (pūrvaka) Tathāgatas, Arhats and Perfectly Awakened Ones. I will also utter it now. By this there will be a rapid guarding of all crops for the sake of warding off damage. [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pūrvaka (पूर्वक).—a. (At the end of comp.)

1) Preceded by, attended with; अनामयप्रश्नपूर्वकमाह (anāmayapraśnapūrvakamāha) Ś.5.

2) Preceding, antecedent.

3) Previous, former, prior.

4) First.

5) ever (nitya); शुचीन् कर्मणि पूर्वके (śucīn karmaṇi pūrvake) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12 85.8; क एषां पूर्वको ब्रह्मन् (ka eṣāṃ pūrvako brahman) Rām.7.4.6.

-kaḥ An ancestor, a forefather; एवं विदेहराजश्च जनकः पूर्वकोऽभवत् (evaṃ videharājaśca janakaḥ pūrvako'bhavat) Rām.7.57.2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pūrvaka (पूर्वक).—[pūrva + ka], I. adj., f. vikā. 1. Prior, before, preceding, Mahābhārata 12, 13697. 2. First, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 70, 21. 3. As latter part of comp. adj. often, Accompanied by, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 78. Ii. kam, adv. 1. With, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 128. 2. Conformable to, 2, 173. Iii. m. An ancestor, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 5176.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pūrvaka (पूर्वक).—[feminine] pūrvikā ealier, former, previous; —° adj. & [neuter] [adverb] accompanied by etc. = [preceding]; [masculine] ancestor, forefather.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pūrvaka (पूर्वक):—[from pūrva] mf(ikā)n. earlier, former, previous, prior, first, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (strī-p, ‘one who was formerly a woman’, bhūta-p, ‘having been before’; ifc. also = preceded or accompanied by, connected with, consisting in; am ind. = after, with, amid, according to)

2) [v.s. ...] m. a forefather, ancestor, [Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pūrvaka (पूर्वक):—[(kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) a.] Before, prior.

[Sanskrit to German]

Purvaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Purvaka in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pūrvaka (पूर्वक) [Also spelled purvak]:——a suffix denoting the sense of with or accompanied by (as [sukhapūrvaka, kṛpāpūrvaka], etc.)

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pūrvaka (ಪೂರ್ವಕ):—

1) [adjective] going before in time or order; previous.

2) [adjective] in company with; along with; associated with.

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Pūrvaka (ಪೂರ್ವಕ):—

1) [noun] a person from whom one is descended; an ancestor.

2) [noun] any of the predecessors of the human race, in gen. (and not necessarily relating to a specific family).

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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