Purushadamyasarathi, aka: Puruṣadamyasārathi, Purusha-damya-sarathi; 2 Definition(s)
Purushadamyasarathi means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Puruṣadamyasārathi can be transliterated into English as Purusadamyasarathi or Purushadamyasarathi, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Puruṣadamyasārathi (पुरुषदम्यसारथि) or “without superior”, is a synonym for the Buddha according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter IV). Puruṣa means man, damya means to be converted and sārathi means the leader of a caravan. The expression “Puruṣadamyasārathi” thus means “Leader of the caravan of men to be converted”.
Why is he called Fou leou cha t’an miao so lo t’i (Puruṣadamyasārathi)?
1) With his great loving kindness (mahāmaitri), his great compassion (mahākaruṇā) and his great wisdom (mahājñāna) he uses a voice that is sometimes sweet (śakṣṇa), sometimes harsh (paruṣa), sometimes lukewarm (śakṣṇaparuṣa) so that the caravan (sārtha) does not lose its way.
2. Furthermore, there are five kinds of leaders (sārathi): ... This is why he is the supreme leader. People do away with the [first] four laws soon enough; they are unable always to observe them. The Buddha governs men by means of the threefold Path (mārgatraya). He never abandons them along the way. Just as the self-nature (svalakṣaṇa) of fire (tejas-) accompanies fire until it is extinguished (nirodha), so the Buddha, who procures good dharmas (kuśaladharma) for men, follows them up to their death and does not abandon them. This is why the Buddha is called Puruṣadamyasārathi.
According to the Visuddhimagga:—According to this explanation, the puruṣas that the Buddha converts are male beings, whether they are animals (tiracchāna), human (manussa) or amanuṣyas.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Languages of India and abroad
Puruṣadamyasārathi (पुरुषदम्यसारथि) or Nara-damyasārathi.—q.v.: SP 359.7 (verse); LV 235.10 (verse); Mv i.234.3 (verse); Divy 72.14 (verse). Apparently used only m.c. for puruṣa°.
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Puruṣadamyasārathi (पुरुषदम्यसारथि).—(puruṣa-damya-sārathi) (= Pali purisa-damma-sā°; expl. Vism. 207.22 ff. essentially as here interpreted), charioteer (driver, tamer, controller) of human ones-that-need- to-be-tamed (= trained religiously; as Vism. indicates, dam = vi-nī, discipline); the figure clearly refers to taming animals, particularly horses, and indeed is no doubt directly based on Pali assa-damma-sārathi, q.v. in CPD; compare such expressions as puruṣājāneya (see s.v. ājāneya), noble steed of a man. Ep. of a Buddha, or a Bodhisattva just before his attainment of Buddhahood. Often misunder- stood; further evidence supporting the interpretation here given will be found below. Tibetan (on Mvy 10, LV 3.4 etc.) skyes bu ḥdul baḥi (of human [to-be-] tamed ones, more lit. of [to-be-] tamed men) kha lo (b)sgyur ba (helm-governor = charioteer). In Tocharian yātäṣlyes yāpy ā(śa)nt, leader of one to be tamed (omitting puruṣa; yāpy is uncertain, possibly helm as in Tibetan). Regularly in cliché listing characteristics of a Buddha: SP 17.11; 65.6; 144.6; 156.4; LV 3.4; Mvy 10; Mv i.38.12; 238.15; 330.2; 331.1; 332.4; 335.16; Divy 54.13 etc.; Av i.65.12 etc.; Suv 168.10; in Mv i.4.9 (read with mss., and print the sentence as an āryā verse, not prose as in Senart) puruṣasiṃhasārathinā (Senart em. puruṣadamya°), controller of lions of men, evidently meant as a much stronger variant of the usual term, but incidentally confirms our interpretation of the latter; so also does the epithet puruṣadamyasārathinā in another formulaic series of epithets applied to the Bo- dhisattva just before his enlightenment, in which several preceding epithets compare him to animals, such as puruṣarṣabheṇa, puruṣasiṃhena: LV 350.12; Mv i.229.9; ii.133.9; 284.19; 415.21; in less formulaic passages LV 428.5; abstr. °sārathi-tā, state of being…, meaning the state of Buddhahood which Bodhisattvas are to attain: Mv ii.260.11; 261.12.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 5 books and stories containing Purushadamyasarathi, Puruṣa-damya-sārathi, Purusa-damya-sarathi, Puruṣa-damyasārathi, Purusa-damyasarathi, Puruṣadamya-sārathi, Purusadamya-sarathi, Puruṣadamyasārathi, Purusadamyasarathi, Purusha-damya-sarathi, Purusha-damyasarathi, Purushadamya-sarathi; (plurals include: Purushadamyasarathis, sārathis, sarathis, damyasārathis, damyasarathis, Puruṣadamyasārathis, Purusadamyasarathis). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Part 9 - Why is the Buddha called Puruṣadamyasārathi (puruṣa-damya-sārathi) < [Chapter IV - Explanation of the Word Bhagavat]
Appendix 10 - The vows and actions of bhikṣu Nanda in previous lives < [Chapter VIII - The Bodhisattvas]
Introduction to third volume < [Introductions]
The Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra (by Charles Luk)
Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva fundamental vow sutra (by Johnny Yu)
A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms (by William Edward Soothill)