Pungava, Puṅgava, Pumgava: 13 definitions

Introduction:

Pungava means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Puṅgava (पुङ्गव) is another name for Ṛṣabhaka, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Microstylis muscifera Ridley which is a synonym of Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) or “fly bearing malaxis” from the Orchidaceae or “orchid” family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.14-16 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Puṅgava and Ṛṣabhaka, there are a total of twenty Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pungava in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Puṅgava (पुङ्गव) refers to the “most eminent (sages)”, according to the Yogatārāvalī: a short Yoga text of twenty-nine verses presenting Haṭhayoga as the means to Rājayoga (i.e., Samādhi).—Accordingly, while describing the no-mind state: “We see the Amanaska Mudrā manifesting in [those] most eminent sages (muni-puṅgava) because [their] breathing has disappeared, [their] bodies are firm and [their] lotus-eyes are half closed”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Puṅgava (पुङ्गव) refers to the “chief (of the gods)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.16 (“The head of Gaṇeśa is chopped off”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Viṣṇu of great strength, valour and skill and possessing great divine weapons and Śiva’s form fought with him. Gaṇeśa hit all the chief gods (amara-puṅgava) with his staff. He hit Viṣṇu too, all of a sudden. The hero had been conferred great strength by the Śaktis. O sage, all the gods including Viṣṇu were hit by him with the stick. They were turned back with their strength sapped. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Puṅgava (पुङ्गव) refers to the “chief (of the snakes)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The doctrine is able to produce the happiness which is the best part of the city of the chief of the snakes (bhujaṅga-puṅgava-purīsāra). The doctrine is the great joy conveyed to the world of mortals for those possessing a desire for that. The doctrine is the place of the arising of the taste for the constant happiness in the city of heaven. Does not the doctrine make a man fit for pleasure with a woman [in the form] of liberation?”,

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pungava in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

puṅgava : (m.) a bull; a noble person.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Puṅgava, (puṃ+gava (see go), cp. Class. Sk. pungava in both meanings) a bull, lit “male-cow, ” A. I, 162; II, 75 sq.; Sn. 690; J. III, 81, 111; V, 222, 242, 259, 433; SnA 323. As —° in meaning “best, chief” Vism. 78 (muni°); ThA. 69 (Ap. V, 5) (nara°). (Page 463)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṅgava (पुङ्गव).—m.

(-vaḥ) 1. A bull. 2. A drug, commonly Mashani. 3. (In composition,) Excellent, pre-eminent. E. puṃ male, and gau a cow, aff. ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṅgava (पुङ्गव).—i. e. puṃs-gava, 1. m. A bull [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 3796. 2. As latter part of comp. words, Excellent, e. g. gaja-, m. A pre-eminent elephant, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 26. nara-, m. An excellent warrior, Chr. 21, 12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṅgava (पुङ्गव):—See p. 630, col. 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṅgava (पुङ्गव):—[pu-ṅgava] (vaḥ) 1. m. A bull; a drug, Māshāni; (in comp.) excellent.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Puṅgava (पुङ्गव) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Puṃgava.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Puṃgava (पुंगव) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Puṅgava.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Puṃgava (ಪುಂಗವ):—

1) [noun] an adult ox; a bull.

2) [noun] an excellent man of the kind.

3) [noun] the large, deciduous tree Toona ciliata ( = Cedrela toona) of Meliaceae family, with paripinnate leaves and white flowers, the wood of which is used in making plywood, tea-chests, furniture, etc.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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