Pratyaya, aka: Pratyāya; 11 Definition(s)
Pratyaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Pratyaya (प्रत्यय, “affix”).—As it ‘distinguishes ideas’ (pratyaya) and develops the meaning of a root by intensifying it or combining it with another or pointing out its ‘essential quality’ (sattva), it is called pratyaya (“affix”).Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—A pratyaya is a c1uster of code syllables that indicate the specific affix tbat must be attached ta the verbal root to yield the nominal stem, as well as the modifications to the root itself (if necessary) before the affix is added. The pratyaya a1so indicates the following properties of the noun that is formed from the nominal stem: 1) gender, one or more (among neuter, masculine and feminine); and 2) possible meanings.
The nouns formed under the pratyaya ‘lyuṭ’ are usually verbal nouns in the neuter gender; however this pratyaya also allows neuter nouns that name instruments of action.Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (grammar)
Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—An affix or termination as contrasted with the base (prakṛti). It is generally added after the base.Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study
Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—Affix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति (prakṛti) the base; cf. प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः (pratyāyyate arthaḥ anena iti pratyayaḥ); cf. also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः (arthe saṃpratyāyayati sa pratyayaḥ) M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय (pratyaya) is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः (sparśe coṣaḥ pratyaye pūrvapadyaḥ) R. Pr. I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं (uṣaḥ ityayaṃ) (शब्दः (śabdaḥ)) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत् (pūrvapadāvayavaḥ san sparśe pratyaye parabhūte iti yāvat); रेफिसंज्ञो भवति (rephisaṃjño bhavati); Uvvata on R. Pr. I.30; cf. प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः (pratyeti paścādāgacchati iti pratyayaḥ paraḥ) T. Pr. V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च (pratyayaḥ, paraśca) P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः (bahupaṭuḥ) cf. विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु (vibhāṣā supo bahuc purastāttu) P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप्, श्यन् (śap, śyan) etc.), the signs of tenses and moods (च्लि, सिच्, स्य, ताम् (cli, sic, sya, tām) etc.) and the compound endings(समासान्त (samāsānta)) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार (adhikāra)) of the rule प्रत्ययः (pratyayaḥ) III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter (अध्याय (adhyāya)). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय, तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (suppratyaya, tiṅpratyaya, kṛtpratyaya, taddhitapratyaya, dhātupratyaya) (e.g. in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय (cikīrṣa, kaṇḍūya) etc.) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय (strīpratyaya). The word प्रत्यय (pratyaya) is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ (i) in the word त्यय (tyaya) means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः (sarve gatyarthā jñānārthāḥ); cf. मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय (mantrārthapratyayāya) Nir. I.15.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)
Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—The Pratyayas are the cause of expansion of metres (chandas). Generally six pratyayas are found in Sanskrit prosody. They are: Prastāra, Naṣṭa, Uddiṣṭa, Ekadvayādilaghukriyā, Saṃkhyāna and Adhvayoga (see Chandomañjarī 1.14). But Mitrānanda advocates about nine types of pratyayas.Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Pratyaya (प्रत्यय) refers to the “four conditions”, as defined in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLIX.—Accordingly, “the Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva who wishes to understand the causal condition, the immediately preceding condition, the object condition and the dominant condition of all dharmas should practice the perfection of wisdom (prajñāpāramitā)”.
The four conditions (pratyaya):
- Causal condition, hetu-pratyaya,
- Immediately preceding condition, samanantara-pratyaya,
- Object condition, ālambana-pratyaya,
- Dominant condition, adhipati-pratyaya.
Notes: In the early texts the words ‘condition’ (pratyaya) and ‘cause’ (hetu) seem to be equivalent. The Kośavyākhyā makes the following comment: “what is the difference between hetu and pratyaya? There is none. The Blessed One said: ‘there are two causes, two conditions for the arising of right view. What are these two? The speech of another and, inwardly, right reflection’ (cf. Majjima and Anguttara). The words hetu, pratyaya, nidāna, kāraṇa, nimitta, liṅga, upaniṣad are synonymous”.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Languages of India and abroad
pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—m (S) See pratīti Sig. I. 2 An affix to roots and words, forming derivatives and inflections. 3S Trust, faith, belief, confidence.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—m Experience. An affix to roots and words. Trust, confidence.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—1 Conviction, settled belief; मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः (mūḍhaḥ parapratyayaneyabuddhiḥ); M.1.2; संजातप्रत्ययः (saṃjātapratyayaḥ) Pt.4.
2) Trust, reliance, faith, confidence; रक्षन् प्रत्ययमात्मनः (rakṣan pratyayamātmanaḥ) Rām.3.9.19; बलवदपि शिक्षितानामात्मन्यप्रत्ययं चेतः (balavadapi śikṣitānāmātmanyapratyayaṃ cetaḥ) Ś.1.2; Ku.6.2; Śi.18.63; Bh.3.6; प्रत्ययार्थं हि लोकानामेवमेव मया कृतम् (pratyayārthaṃ hi lokānāmevameva mayā kṛtam) Abhiṣeka. 6.29.
3) Conception, idea, notion, opinion.
4) Surety, certainty; प्रत्ययार्थं ततः सीता विवेश ज्वलनं तदा (pratyayārthaṃ tataḥ sītā viveśa jvalanaṃ tadā) Rām.7.45. 7.
5) Knowledge, experience, cognition; स्थानप्रत्ययात् (sthānapratyayāt) Ś.7 'judging by the place'; so आकृतिप्रत्ययात् (ākṛtipratyayāt) M.1; Me.8.
6) A cause, ground, means of action; स्वकर्म- प्रत्ययाँल्लोकान् मत्वाऽर्जुनमब्रवीत् (svakarma- pratyayāṃllokān matvā'rjunamabravīt) Mb.13.1.77; अपेक्षते प्रत्ययमुत्तमं त्वाम् (apekṣate pratyayamuttamaṃ tvām) Ku.3.18.
7) Celebrity, fame, renown.
8) A termination, an affix or suffix; केवलं दधति कर्तृवाचिनः प्रत्ययानिह न जातु कर्मणि (kevalaṃ dadhati kartṛvācinaḥ pratyayāniha na jātu karmaṇi) Śi.14.66.
9) An oath.
1) A dependant.
11) A usage, practice.
12) A hole.
13) Intellect, understanding (buddhi).
14) An assistant or associate.
15) An epithet of Viṣṇu; नामरूपे भगवती प्रत्यय- स्त्वमपाश्रयः (nāmarūpe bhagavatī pratyaya- stvamapāśrayaḥ) Bhāg.6.19.14.
16) (With Buddhists) A co-operating cause.
17) An instrument, a means of agency.
18) Religious contemplation.
19) A householder who keeps a sacred fire.
2) Function of the organs (indriyavṛtti); सर्वेन्द्रियगुणद्रष्ट्रे सर्वप्रत्ययहेतवे (sarvendriyaguṇadraṣṭre sarvapratyayahetave) Bhāg.8.3. 14.
Derivable forms: pratyayaḥ (प्रत्ययः).
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1) A toll, tax.
2) Revenue, income.
Derivable forms: pratyāyaḥ (प्रत्यायः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 94 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Bhāvapratyaya (भावप्रत्यय).—An affix in the sense of quality such as त्व, ता (tva, tā) etc.; cf...
Samanantarapratyaya (समनन्तरप्रत्यय).—see pratyaya (1).
Strīpratyaya (स्त्रीप्रत्यय).—a feminine affix (in gram.) Derivable forms: strīpratyayaḥ (स्त्र...
Pūraṇapratyaya (पूरणप्रत्यय).—an affix forming an ordinal number.Derivable forms: pūraṇapratyay...
Bhedapratyaya (भेदप्रत्यय).—belief in dualism. Derivable forms: bhedapratyayaḥ (भेदप्रत्ययः).Bh...
pratyayapratibhū (प्रत्ययप्रतिभू).—m S An assurance-security. See viśvāsa pratibhū.
Guṇapratyaya (गुणप्रत्यय) refers to “the spiritual purification by partial subsidence-cum-destr...
Bhūta-vāta-pratyāya.—(EI 23; CII 4; HRS), ‘the income derived from the elements and the winds’;...
Bhūta-pratyāya.—(CII 3), an income derived from natural changes in the land. See bhūta-vāta-pra...
Sa-vāta-bhūta-pratyāya.—(EI 11; IA 9), same as sa-bhūta-vāta- pratyāya, etc. Note: sa-vāta-bhūt...
Vāta-pratyāya.—(EI 32; CII 4), explained by some as ‘octroi duty’, but actually, ‘income result...
Sa-bhūta-pāta-pratyāya.—(CII 3), refers to the income from the gift land as a result of some ac...
Samasta-bhāga-bhoga-kara-hiraṇy-ādi-pratyāya-sameta.—‘together with all incomes including the k...
Sa-bhūta-vāta-pratyāya.—(EI 23), with pāta sometimes in place of vāta; ‘together with the incom...
Rāja-bhāvya-sarva-pratyāya-sameta.—(EI 23), bhāvya being often changed to ābhāvya; same as a-ki...
Search found 27 books and stories containing Pratyaya or Pratyāya. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
I. The four conditions (pratyaya) and the six causes (hetu) < [Part 1 - Understanding the Conditions (pratyaya)]
Part 1 - Understanding the Conditions (pratyaya) < [Chapter XLIX - The Four Conditions]
Conditions and Causes: Preliminary note < [Part 1 - Understanding the Conditions (pratyaya)]
The Tattvasangraha [with commentary] (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 2940 < [Chapter 25 - Examination of the Doctrine of ‘Self-sufficient Validity’]
Verse 2238 < [Chapter 24a - The case for the reliability of the Veda (the Revealed Word)]
Verse 252 < [Chapter 7 - Doctrine of the Self (ātman, ‘soul’)]
The Buddhist Philosophy of Universal Flux (by Satkari Mookerjee)
Yoga Sutras with Vedanta Commentaries (by Patañjali)
Sūtras 20-25 < [Part II - Yoga and its Practice]
Sūtras 6-14 < [Part I - Yoga and its Aims]
Sūtra 18 < [Part I - Yoga and its Aims]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 14 - Did Logic Originate in the Discussions of Āyurveda Physicians < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Part 5 - The World-Appearance < [Chapter XII - The Philosophy of the Yogavāsiṣṭha]
Part 8 - Maṇḍana, Sureśvara and Viśvarūpa < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]