Pratyaya, Pratyāya: 15 definitions

Introduction

Pratyaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Pratyaya (प्रत्यय, “affix”).—As it ‘distinguishes ideas’ (pratyaya) and develops the meaning of a root by intensifying it or combining it with another or pointing out its ‘essential quality’ (sattva), it is called pratyaya (“affix”).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (grammar)

Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—A pratyaya is a c1uster of code syllables that indicate the specific affix tbat must be attached ta the verbal root to yield the nominal stem, as well as the modifications to the root itself (if necessary) before the affix is added. The pratyaya a1so indicates the following properties of the noun that is formed from the nominal stem: 1) gender, one or more (among neuter, masculine and feminine); and 2) possible meanings.

The nouns formed under the pratyaya ‘lyuṭ’ are usually verbal nouns in the neuter gender; however this pratyaya also allows neuter nouns that name instruments of action.

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—An affix or termination as contrasted with the base (prakṛti). It is generally added after the base.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—Affix, suffix, a termination, as contrasted with प्रकृति (prakṛti) the base; cf. प्रत्याय्यते अर्थः अनेन इति प्रत्ययः (pratyāyyate arthaḥ anena iti pratyayaḥ); cf. also अर्थे संप्रत्याययति स प्रत्ययः (arthe saṃpratyāyayati sa pratyayaḥ) M.Bh. on III. 1.l Vart. 8; The word प्रत्यय (pratyaya) is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows', e. g. स्पर्शे चोषः प्रत्यये पूर्वपद्यः (sparśe coṣaḥ pratyaye pūrvapadyaḥ) R. Pr. I. 30 which is explained by Uvvata as उषः इत्ययं (uṣaḥ ityayaṃ) (शब्दः (śabdaḥ)) पूर्वपदावयवः सन् स्पर्शे प्रत्यये परभूते इति यावत् (pūrvapadāvayavaḥ san sparśe pratyaye parabhūte iti yāvat); रेफिसंज्ञो भवति (rephisaṃjño bhavati); Uvvata on R. Pr. I.30; cf. प्रत्येति पश्चादागच्छति इति प्रत्ययः परः (pratyeti paścādāgacchati iti pratyayaḥ paraḥ) T. Pr. V. 7; cf also V. Pr, III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf, प्रत्ययः, परश्च (pratyayaḥ, paraśca) P. III. I. 1,2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e. g. बहुपटुः (bahupaṭuḥ) cf. विभाषा सुपो बहुच् पुरस्तात्तु (vibhāṣā supo bahuc purastāttu) P. V. 3.68. The conjugational signs (शप्, श्यन् (śap, śyan) etc.), the signs of tenses and moods (च्लि, सिच्, स्य, ताम् (cli, sic, sya, tām) etc.) and the compound endings(समासान्त (samāsānta)) are all called pratyayas according fo Panini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction(अधिकार (adhikāra)) of the rule प्रत्ययः (pratyayaḥ) III.1.1, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter (अध्याय (adhyāya)). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar सुप्प्रत्यय, तिङ्प्रत्यय, कृत्प्रत्यय, तद्धितप्रत्यय, धातुप्रत्यय (suppratyaya, tiṅpratyaya, kṛtpratyaya, taddhitapratyaya, dhātupratyaya) (e.g. in the roots चिकीर्ष, कण्डूय (cikīrṣa, kaṇḍūya) etc.) and स्त्रीप्रत्यय (strīpratyaya). The word प्रत्यय (pratyaya) is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root इ (i) in the word त्यय (tyaya) means'knowing' according to the maxim सर्वे गत्यर्था ज्ञानार्थाः (sarve gatyarthā jñānārthāḥ); cf. मन्त्रार्थप्रत्ययाय (mantrārthapratyayāya) Nir. I.15.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—The Pratyayas are the cause of expansion of metres (chandas). Generally six pratyayas are found in Sanskrit prosody. They are: Prastāra, Naṣṭa, Uddiṣṭa, Ekadvayādilaghukriyā, Saṃkhyāna and Adhvayoga (see Chandomañjarī 1.14). But Mitrānanda advocates about nine types of pratyayas.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pratyaya (प्रत्यय) refers to the “four conditions”, as defined in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLIX.—Accordingly, “the Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva who wishes to understand the causal condition, the immediately preceding condition, the object condition and the dominant condition of all dharmas should practice the perfection of wisdom (prajñāpāramitā)”.

The four conditions (pratyaya):

  1. Causal condition, hetu-pratyaya,
  2. Immediately preceding condition, samanantara-pratyaya,
  3. Object condition, ālambana-pratyaya,
  4. Dominant condition, adhipati-pratyaya.

Notes: In the early texts the words ‘condition’ (pratyaya) and ‘cause’ (hetu) seem to be equivalent. The Kośavyākhyā makes the following comment: “what is the difference between hetu and pratyaya? There is none. The Blessed One said: ‘there are two causes, two conditions for the arising of right view. What are these two? The speech of another and, inwardly, right reflection’ (cf. Majjima and Anguttara). The words hetu, pratyaya, nidāna, kāraṇa, nimitta, liṅga, upaniṣad are synonymous”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pratyaya.—probably, a lessee (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIV, pp. 143-44). Note: pratyaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pratyaya.—(EI 11, 15), a holding; sometimes also written as pratyāya (cf. CII, Vol. III, p. 170, note 5). Cf. Prakrit avija-pracaga saṃkara (CII 2-1) = Sanskrit avidyā- pratyayāḥ saṃskārāḥ, ‘in inter-connection with delusion are the saṃkāras’, i. e. the saṃkāras spring from avidyā. Cf. etat-pratyaye, in this matter (Select Inscriptions, p. 237). Note: pratyaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pratyāya.—(IE 8-5; EI 29; HRS), revenue; income or tax; dues payable to the king including bhāga-bhoga-kara and hiraṇya; cf. bhūla-vāta-pratyāya (EI 10). See pratyaya. Note: pratyāya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Pratyaya or Pratyāya.—(CII 3), primarily ‘income’ and secon- darily ‘a holding, the income of which is enjoyed.’ Cf. amuka- pratyaya-amuka. Note: pratyaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—m (S) See pratīti Sig. I. 2 An affix to roots and words, forming derivatives and inflections. 3S Trust, faith, belief, confidence.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—m Experience. An affix to roots and words. Trust, confidence.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—1 Conviction, settled belief; मूढः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः (mūḍhaḥ parapratyayaneyabuddhiḥ); M.1.2; संजातप्रत्ययः (saṃjātapratyayaḥ) Pt.4.

2) Trust, reliance, faith, confidence; रक्षन् प्रत्ययमात्मनः (rakṣan pratyayamātmanaḥ) Rām.3.9.19; बलवदपि शिक्षितानामात्मन्यप्रत्ययं चेतः (balavadapi śikṣitānāmātmanyapratyayaṃ cetaḥ) Ś.1.2; Ku.6.2; Śi.18.63; Bh.3.6; प्रत्ययार्थं हि लोकानामेवमेव मया कृतम् (pratyayārthaṃ hi lokānāmevameva mayā kṛtam) Abhiṣeka. 6.29.

3) Conception, idea, notion, opinion.

4) Surety, certainty; प्रत्ययार्थं ततः सीता विवेश ज्वलनं तदा (pratyayārthaṃ tataḥ sītā viveśa jvalanaṃ tadā) Rām.7.45. 7.

5) Knowledge, experience, cognition; स्थानप्रत्ययात् (sthānapratyayāt) Ś.7 'judging by the place'; so आकृतिप्रत्ययात् (ākṛtipratyayāt) M.1; Me.8.

6) A cause, ground, means of action; स्वकर्म- प्रत्ययाँल्लोकान् मत्वाऽर्जुनमब्रवीत् (svakarma- pratyayāṃllokān matvā'rjunamabravīt) Mb.13.1.77; अपेक्षते प्रत्ययमुत्तमं त्वाम् (apekṣate pratyayamuttamaṃ tvām) Ku.3.18.

7) Celebrity, fame, renown.

8) A termination, an affix or suffix; केवलं दधति कर्तृवाचिनः प्रत्ययानिह न जातु कर्मणि (kevalaṃ dadhati kartṛvācinaḥ pratyayāniha na jātu karmaṇi) Śi.14.66.

9) An oath.

1) A dependant.

11) A usage, practice.

12) A hole.

13) Intellect, understanding (buddhi).

14) An assistant or associate.

15) An epithet of Viṣṇu; नामरूपे भगवती प्रत्यय- स्त्वमपाश्रयः (nāmarūpe bhagavatī pratyaya- stvamapāśrayaḥ) Bhāg.6.19.14.

16) (With Buddhists) A co-operating cause.

17) An instrument, a means of agency.

18) Religious contemplation.

19) A householder who keeps a sacred fire.

2) Function of the organs (indriyavṛtti); सर्वेन्द्रियगुणद्रष्ट्रे सर्वप्रत्ययहेतवे (sarvendriyaguṇadraṣṭre sarvapratyayahetave) Bhāg.8.3. 14.

Derivable forms: pratyayaḥ (प्रत्ययः).

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Pratyāya (प्रत्याय).—

1) A toll, tax.

2) Revenue, income.

Derivable forms: pratyāyaḥ (प्रत्यायः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—m. (once praccaya, q.v.; in meaning 1 Sanskrit; in all mgs. = Pali paccaya), (1) cause; often clearly a synonym of hetu, tho metaphysical writers try to distin- guish the two in various ways; see e.g. Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. ix.241, note 3, vyākhyā: hetur āsannaḥ pratyayaḥ, viprakṛṣṭas tu pratyaya eva; janako hetuḥ, pratyayas tv ālambanamātram ity apare; paryāyāv etāv ity apare, hetu is the proximate cause (pratyaya), the remote one is pratyaya rather; others say hetu is what generates (produces), pratyaya only the underlying condition; others say the two are synonyms; where hetu and pratyaya occur together in parallel phrases older interpreters (Burnouf, Kern on Saddharmapuṇḍarīka, Foucaux on Lalitavistara) often mistakenly render pratyaya by effect: ko…hetuḥ kaḥ pratyayaḥ Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 8.5; ayaṃ… hetur ayaṃ pratyayo Lalitavistara 120.19; so, the two being clearly synonyms, Lalitavistara 128.11; Mahāvastu i.66.7; 153.7; ii.283.19 (taddhe- tos tatpratyayāt); Divyāvadāna 204.7 etc. (ko…hetuḥ kaḥ pratyayo, common here); Divyāvadāna 199.12 (ahetu-pratyayaṃ, mss. °yāṃ, adv.); Mahāvastu iii.57.15 (hetu-pratyaya-cārikā, [bahuvrīhi]); Avadāna-śataka i.82.4 (taddhetu tatpratyayaṃ ca, adverbs); with the further synonym nidāna, sahetu sapratyayaṃ ca sanidānaṃ Lalitavistara 376.21 (verse), with (good) ground, cause, and reason; with kāraṇa (Sanskrit), dvau kāraṇau tasya… dvau ca pratyayau Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 11.9 (verse), two causes and reasons; technically there are four pratyaya listed, viz. hetu-pr°, samanantara-pr°, ālambana-pr°, adhipati-pr° (equiv- alents among 24 paccaya in Pali, Vism. 532.11), elaborately discussed Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. ii.299 ff.; listed Mahāvyutpatti 2266— 2270; Bodhisattvabhūmi 98.26 ff. (brief definitions); seemingly in cor- rupt form Śatasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 80.4 ālambanāmateya-samanantara-hetu- pratyayatā (see s.v. adhipati); in Bodhisattvabhūmi 13.21 ff. a (totally unrelated) list of 4 pratyaya and 4 (different) hetu of cittotpāda in a Bodhisattva are listed, the pratyaya being occasions, conjunctions of events which stimulate cittot- pāda; they are external to the Bodhisattva, while the 4 hetu seem more personal and mostly internal (the 4 hetu are gotrasaṃpad, buddha-bodhisattva-kalyāṇamitra-pari- grahaḥ, sattveṣu kāruṇyam, and saṃsāraduḥkhād… abhīrutā, 15.11 ff.); kadācit pratyayaṃ nārāgayiṣyāmi Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.14.11, perhaps I shall not get an occasion (oppor- tunity, = avakāśa); in Mahāvastu iii.338.2, 8 are listed three pratyaya, viz. āśravā(ḥ), vighātā(ḥ), and paridāghā(ḥ), for each of the five skandha, q.v.; -pratyayā (ifc.), for °yāt (= Pali paccayā), abl. as adv., because of… (what precedes in composition), kiṃpratyayā, because of what? Mahāvastu iii.65.13, 15; avidyāpratyayā, etc., various cpds., id. 15 ff.; idaṃpratyayā 66.1; especially in the pratītya-samutpāda, q.v. for lists, the regular formula begins avidyāpratyayāḥ ([bahuvrīhi]) saṃskārāḥ yāvaj jātipratyayaṃ jarāmaraṇam iti Śālistambasūtra 76.14, and similarly as a rule when the formula is cited in full in prose, as Mahāvastu ii.285.8 ff., iii.448.12 ff. (but even in prose it may be modulated with avoidance of this stock terminology, as Daśabhūmikasūtra 48.25 ff.); with rather clear reference to this but not in the standard formula, pratyaya- saṃbhava ([bahuvrīhi] adj., dependent in origin) Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 57.14; 60.6; 61.2; otherwise used quite as in Sanskrit, cause, e.g. dveṣa-pratyayopasaṃhāraḥ Avadāna-śataka ii.129.14, see upasaṃ- hāra (1); svapratyayān (based on themselves) dharmān prakāśayati Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 29.8, and similarly 131.9 (verse); (2) in glāna-pratyaya-bhaiṣajya, medicine to cure the sick, the fourth of a monk's 4 pariṣkāra, q.v. for lists (in Kāraṇḍavvūha 19.9; 20.20; 40.17 yāna is misprinted for glāna); here the word pratyaya (Tibetan on Mahāvyutpatti 5893 misprinted gos, read gso with Tibetan Index and 6139) means substantially cure, orig. however clearly (required) means (of treatment); note that pratyaya in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] is not used as equivalent of pariṣkāra in this sense, as Pali paccaya is alleged to be used by both Childers and [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary]; bhojana-gilānaprac- cayaṃ (semi-MIndic) Mahāvastu i.117.7 (verse); (3) pratyaya- buddha, one who becomes a Buddha by (understanding of) causes, = a pratyeka-buddha, q.v.: Śikṣāsamuccaya 344.7 (verse), [Page376-a+ 71] where a marginal gloss has pratyekabuddha (which would be unmetrical(ly)); so also pratyaya-jina Daśabhūmikasūtra.g. 51(77.)2; and pratyaya-yāna = pratyeka-(buddha-) yāna Śikṣāsamuccaya 328.8 (verse; follows śrāvakayāna, and followed by uttama-yāna = mahāyāna; misunderstood by Bendall and Rouse); the same meaning is expressed by pratyayair jinā(ḥ) Lalitavistara 443.17 (verse; refers to pratyekabuddhas, mentioned two lines be- fore); the application of the term is made clear by a passage in Saddharmapuṇḍarīka chapter 3, p. 80, where first, line 5 f., we read: tatra kecit sattvāḥ paraghoṣaśravānugamanam ākāṅk- ṣamāṇā ātmaparinirvāṇahetoś caturāryasatyānubodhāya tathāgataśāsane 'bhiyujyante, ta ucyante śrāvakayānam ākāṅkṣamāṇās…(the hīnayāna followers); then, 8 f., anye sattvā anācāryakaṃ jñānaṃ damaśamatham ākāṅk- ṣamāṇā ātmaparinirvāṇahetor hetu-pratyayānubodhāya tathāgataśāsane 'bhiyujyante, ta ucyante pratyeka- buddhayānam ākāṅkṣamāṇās…; and finally, 11 ff., apare punaḥ sattvāḥ sarvajñajñānaṃ…ākāṅkṣamāṇā… sarvasattvaparinirvāṇahetos tathāgatajñānabalavaiśārad- yānubodhāya tathāgataśāsane 'bhiyujyante, ta ucyante mahāyānam ākāṅkṣamāṇās…; here it is very clearly characteristic of pratyekabuddhas that they seek to understand (anubodhāya) grounds and reasons, whereas śrāvakas seek to understand only the four noble truths, and mahāyānists seek to understand the whole knowledge, etc., of Tathāgatas. The śrāvakas are also said to be con- tent with following what they hear said by others (i.e. of the gospel); pratyekabuddhas go deeper, but not so deep as mahāyānists. In [Prātimokṣasūtra des Sarvāstivādins] 520.9 pratyaya-pravāraṇāyā (see pravāraṇā) is, in a v.l., read pratyeka-prav°, which seems to have been the reading used by Chin. (secrète); the Pali parallel, however, Vin. iv.102.38, has cātumāsa- paccaya-pavāraṇā, and the old commentary, Vin. iv.103.4 ff., understands paccaya = gilāna-paccaya, i.e. our 2 above; it may be that some confusion has occurred in the tradition; did the [Prātimokṣasūtra des Sarvāstivādins] redactor, reading pratyaya-, have in mind both the above-mentioned use of pratyaya-buddha for pratyeka-b°, and at the same time the curious use of pratyeka described under that word (and did he even substitute pratyaya for it)?

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Pratyāya (प्रत्याय).—m. (Sanskrit Lex.), tax, tribute: °yaḥ Mahāvyutpatti 7302; kara-pra°, pl., Divyāvadāna 22.12 ff.; 59.24; 510.22 ff. (not in Index or Notes); Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.32.5; (printed prāt°) ii.72.4.

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Prātyāya (प्रात्याय).—[, error for pratyāya, q.v.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Trust, faith, belief, confidence. 2. Oath, ordeal. 3. Cause, motive. 4. Usage, custom, practice. 5. Fame, celebrity. 6. Certainty, ascertainment. 7. Knewledge, apprehension. 8. A termination or an affix to roots and words forming derivatives and inflections, (in Gram.) 9. A dependent, a subject, 10. Instrument, means of agency, a helpmate or associate, applicable either to persons or things. 11. A householder who keeps a sacred fire. 12. Religious contemplation. 13. A hole. E. prati again, against, to or towards, iṇ to go, aff. ac .

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Pratyāya (प्रत्याय).—m.

(-yaḥ) A toll, a tax.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratyaya (प्रत्यय).—[masculine] belief, conviction, confidence, trust in ([locative], [genetive], or —°), evidence, certainty, knowledge, notion, idea; suffix ([grammar]).

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Pratyāyā (प्रत्याया).—return, come back to ([accusative]), go to meet or against ([accusative]).

Pratyāyā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pratyā and (या).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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