Prativastupama, Prativastūpamā, Prativastu-upama: 5 definitions

Introduction:

Prativastupama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

[«previous next»] — Prativastupama in Kavyashastra glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Prativastūpamā (प्रतिवस्तूपमा) or Prativastu refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The figure prativastūpamā has been admitted by ancient Ālaṃkārikas in a different way. According to Daṇḍin (K.D. II/46) and Vāmana who names it prativastu have accepted it as a figure based on upamā. Bhāmaha (K.A. II/34) deals it as a separate figure. Modern Ālaṃkārikas like Mammaṭa, Ruyyaka (A.S.P. 74), Viśvanātha has treated it as a separate figure.

Cirañjīva defines it as—“pṛthaguddiṣṭasāmānye prativastūpamā matā”.—“When the same attribute is mentioned by different words to avoid tautology which is a defect it is the figure prativastūpamā”. Cirañjīva adds in the vṛtti that there must be similarity between the thing to be described and the thing which is non-contextual. When two objects share the same and common property and this common property is conveyed with the help of two different expressions to avoid tautology which is a sort of flaw, it is known as vastuprativastubhāva which predominates in the figure prativastūpamā. There is another relation called bimbapratibimbabhāva which comes as a contrast against vastuprativastubhāva and which is predominant in dṛṣṭānta.

Example of the prativastūpamā-alaṃkāra:—

vilinatāmeva gatā daridratā mahīśa! dānāya bhavatkarodaye |
adṛśyatāmeva bhajanti kauśikāḥ samantato bhānumataḥ karodaye ||

“Oh king! after raising your hand for munificience, proverty has gone to an end. Likewise with the appearence of the rays of the sun on all sides the owls have disappeared”.

Notes: Here the disappearence of poverty and owls is the same attribute and this same attribute has been expressed in different ways by different words like vilīnatāṃ gatā, adṛśyatāṃ bhajanti. Not only that here all the things in the two sentences are similar. The king has similarity with the sun, the poverty with owls and the hands with the rays of the sun. So it is an example of prativastūpamā.

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Prativastūpamā (प्रतिवस्तूपमा) refers to a type of Upamā (“simile”) which represents one of the various Alaṅkāras (‘figures of speech’) classified as Artha (‘sense’), as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.— Hari Narayan projects a very enchanting simile ‘prativastūpamā’ in XIV.24 of the Bhīṣmacarita by comparing the death with that of old clothes. Bīṣma tells Yudhiṣṭhira that now he has become old and the time has come for him to leave that mortal body as a person casts off worn out clothes and puts on new clothes. This he tells to Yudhiṣṭhira when he comes to him for the help in the battle. The other examples are II.46, IV.6, IV.32, IV.44, V.14, V.23, V.25, VI.20, XII.2, XIII.55, XVI.30, etc.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Prativastupama in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prativastūpamā (प्रतिवस्तूपमा).—f.

(-mā) A figure of Speech.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prativastūpamā (प्रतिवस्तूपमा).—[feminine] a kind of comparison.

[Sanskrit to German]

Prativastupama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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