Pratapana, Pratāpana: 10 definitions

Introduction

Pratapana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pratapana in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Pratapana (प्रतपन).—A hell.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 33. 61.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Pratāpana (प्रतापन) or Pratapana is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Pratāpanī [or Pratapanī] forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Cittacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the cittacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (‘emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Pratāpana] are black in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pratapana in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pratāpana (प्रतापन) refers to one of the eight great hells according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—Accordingly, “The sixth and seventh great hells are the Tapana and Pratāpana. There are two great copper cauldrons there; the first is called Nan t’o (Nanda) and the second Po nan t’o (Upananda); in the language of Ts’in, “Joy” and “Great Joy”; they are filled with boiling brine. The Rākṣasa demons, guardians of hell, throw the damned into them, like head chefs cooking meat. The people in these cauldrons have their feet up and their heads down; they are boiled like beans; their bones and joints become detached; their skin and flesh dissolve”.

Also, “In their previous lives, these unfortunates had tormented their parents, their teacher, Śrāmaṇas and Brāhmaṇas; they had tormented honest people and fields of merit (puṇyakṣetra) to the point of arousing their anger; for these reasons they suffer the torments of the Tapana hell. Or else, in their previous lives, they had roasted live cocoons, roasted live pigs and sheep, spit-roasted living human beings. Or else they had set fire to the jungle, burned villages, stūpas, monasteries (vihāra), temples (devacaitya), etc., or else they had thrown beings into pits of fire. It is for all these reasons that they are reborn in this hell”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pratapana in Buddhism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Pratāpana (प्रतापन) refers to the “scolding hell” and represents one of the “eight hot hells” (uṣṇa-naraka) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 121). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., pratāpana). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Pratapana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pratapana (प्रतपन).—Warming, making warm.

Derivable forms: pratapanam (प्रतपनम्).

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Pratāpana (प्रतापन).—a.

1) Warming.

2) Distressing.

-nam 1 Burning, heating, warming.

2) Paining, tormenting, inflicting punishment.

-naḥ Name of a hell.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pratāpana (प्रतापन).—m., name of a hot hell: Mahāvyutpatti 4926, so with v.l., Tibetan rab tu tsha ba, and Mironov without v.l., for text mahātāpanaḥ; Dharmasaṃgraha 121; in these and most other places occurs in lists of various hells (compare Pratāpa 2); Mahāvastu i.9.9; 15.7, 12; ii.350.8; 369.14; iii.274.10; Divyāvadāna 67.22; 138.6; 366.29; Avadāna-śataka i.4.8, etc.; Samādhirājasūtra 19.20; Kāraṇḍavvūha 18.13 (text pretāyane!); 66.16 (text pretāpane! some copyist thought of preta); (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 114.26.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratapana (प्रतपन).—n.

(-naṃ) Making warm.

--- OR ---

Pratāpana (प्रतापन).—m.

(-naḥ) Name of a hell. n.

(-naṃ) 1. Inflicting pain or punishment, burning, consuming. 2. Paining, distressing. E. pra before, tap to heat, aff. ṇic-lyu .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratapana (प्रतपन).—[pra-tap + ana], n. Warming, Mahābhārata 1, 3576.

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Pratāpana (प्रतापन).—i. e. pra-tap, [Causal.], + ana, I. adj. Distressing, inflicting pain, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 29. Ii. m. A hell. Iii. n. Burning, Mahābhārata 13, 3302.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratāpana (प्रतापन).—[adjective] burning, paining. [masculine] a cert. hell; [neuter] burning, heating.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pratapana (प्रतपन):—[=pra-tapana] [from pra-tap] n. warming, heating, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

2) Pratāpana (प्रतापन):—[=pra-tāpana] [from pra-tap] mfn. making hot, paining, tormenting, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] m. Name of Śiva, [Śivagītā, ascribed to the padma-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] a [particular] hell, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] n. warming, heating, turning, paining, distressing, [Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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