Prashama, Praśama, Praśāma: 16 definitions

Introduction:

Prashama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Praśama and Praśāma can be transliterated into English as Prasama or Prashama, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Praśama (प्रशम) is the third aspect of Bhairava, representing the state where everything is dissolved in his flame of mahābodha (universal consciousness), according to Abhinavagupta in his Tantrāloka 3.283-285. The Tantrāloka (10th century) is an elaborate Sanskrit exposition of Śaivism.

Bhairava is a mystical representation of the Ultimate Reality in the form of Parama-Śiva into which prakāśa (“light of consciousness”) and vimarśa (“eternal awareness of that light”) are fused.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Praśama (प्रशम) (Cf. Haṭhapāka) refers to “cessation” (of limitations), according to the Tantrāloka 3.259cd-262.—Accordingly, “The masters have said that the form (of consciousness) that transcends limiting conditions is of two types according to whether it comes about by the non-arising of limitations or by their cessation (praśama). Again, (their) cessation is of two kinds, according to whether it takes place peacefully or by a process of violent digestion (haṭhapāka-krama) brought about (in an instant by Bhairava) who is called the One Who Delights in Devouring Completely and whose nature is perpetually aflame. This (manner of) cessation, which is brought about by violent digestion, is the third type. It burns the fuel of differentiation (bheda) and is (particularly) worthy of being taught. All existing things consigned in an instant (haṭhata) to the fire that burns in the stomach of one's own consciousness abandon the division of relative distinctions and thus fuel it by their power.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Praśama (प्रशम) refers to “calmness”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Incense and light, the end of all consecrations, is equally splendid, I invite calmness and tranquility (praśama-śānta), rendering all knowledge clear”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Praśama (प्रशम).—What is the meaning of praśama? Absence of the intense attachment is praśama.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Praśama (प्रशम) refers to the “tranquillity (of discrimination)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “This [virtuous meditation] confers upon corporeal souls the pleasure, produced from the tranquillity of discrimination (viveka-praśama-udbhava) because of endless non-attachment, which is the experience of one’s own self [and] is beyond the senses”.

Synonyms: Kṣānti.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

praśama (प्रशम).—m S Assuagement, appeasement, abatement (of anger, lust &c.)

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Praśama (प्रशम).—

1) Calmness, tranquillity, composure; प्रशमस्थितपूर्वपार्थिवम् (praśamasthitapūrvapārthivam) R.8.15; Kirātārjunīya 2.32.

2) Peace, rest.

3) Extinction, abatement; प्रशमादर्चिषामेतत् (praśamādarciṣāmetat) Kumārasambhava 2.2.

4) Cessation, end, destruction; निर्वाणवैरदहनाः प्रशमादरीणां (nirvāṇavairadahanāḥ praśamādarīṇāṃ) Ve.1.7; प्रयतः प्रशमं हुताशनस्य (prayataḥ praśamaṃ hutāśanasya) Śiśupālavadha 2.73.

5) Pacification, appeasement; प्रशमोपन्यसनं वृथा मम (praśamopanyasanaṃ vṛthā mama) Śiśupālavadha 16.51.

Derivable forms: praśamaḥ (प्रशमः).

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Praśāma (प्रशाम).—

1) Tranquillity, calm, composure.

2) Quenching, extinction, allaying.

3) Cessation.

Derivable forms: praśāmaḥ (प्रशामः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Praśama (प्रशम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Calmness, tranquillity, composure. 2. Assuagement, appeasement. 3. Abatement, extinction. E. pra, śam to pacify, ac or ghañ affix.

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Praśāma (प्रशाम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Tranquillity, quiescence. 2. Allaying, pacifying. 3. Laying, suppressing. E. pra before, śam to be at rest, ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Praśama (प्रशम).—[pra-śam + a], m. 1. Quiet, end, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 3, 21. 2. Tranquillising, removing, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 87.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Praśama (प्रशम).—[masculine] calmness, tranquillity ([especially] of the mind), ceasing, disappearance, extinction (of fire).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Praśama (प्रशम):—[=pra-śama] [from pra-śam] m. calmness, tranquillity ([especially] of mind), quiet, rest, cessation, extinction, abatement, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a son of Ānaka-dundubhi and Śānti-deva, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) Praśāma (प्रशाम):—[=pra-śāma] [from pra-śān > pra-śam] tranquillity, pacification, suppression, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Praśāma (प्रशाम):—[pra-śāma] (maḥ) 1. m. Tranquillity.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Praśama (प्रशम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Pasama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Prashama in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Praśama (ಪ್ರಶಮ):—

1) [noun] an undisturbed, tranquil state of the mind; absence of mental conflict; serenity; tranquillity.

2) [noun] a lessening, mitigating of mental disturbance, conflict, etc.

3) [noun] (gen.) a lessening, reduction or being lessened or reduced; abatement.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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See also (Relevant definitions)

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