Praktana, Prāktana: 15 definitions


Praktana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Praktan.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Praktana in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Prāktana (प्राक्तन) refers to “previous” (e.g., a previous birth), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.7.—Accordingly, after the Goddess (Umā/Śivā) incarnated as Pārvatī by becoming the daughter of Menā:—“[...] O sage, the goddess Śivā when the suitable time for her education arrived learnt all the lores from a good preceptor, with concentrated mind and great pleasure. Just as the flock of swans returns to the Gaṅgā in the autumnal season and just as the brilliant lustre manifests itself in the medicinal herbs during the night, so also all the learning of the previous [i.e., prāktana] birth returned to Kālī. O sage, thus I have described one of the divine sports of Śivā. I shall narrate another one of her divine sports. You listen to it lovingly”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Prāktana (प्राक्तन) refers to the “past”, according to the Svacchandatantra verse 4.141-145.—Accordingly, “[...] The other form [of bubhukṣu initiation] is the lokadharmiṇī, which destroys both past (prāktana) and future demerit. That lokadharmiṇī-dīkṣā is known to exclude the obligation to propitiate mantras [by means of purvasevā etc.]. However, when the current body breaks, [the candidate] experiences [the series of eight supernatural natural powers] starting with becoming very small. Having experienced [these] enjoyments he moves upwards to whichever [cosmic level] the Guru has joined him [by yojanikā]. Whether this is at the sakala or niṣkala level [of Śiva] depends on [the preference of] the candidate and Guru”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Prāktana (प्राक्तन) refers to “former (friends)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Those who are former friends (prāktanaprāktanās te 'tra janmani) (i.e. friends in a former life) are seen in life here endowed with enmity, having eyes filled with anger [and] prepared to kill”.

2) Prāktana (प्राक्तन) refers to “former (bodies)”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “Former (prāktana) [bodies are] destroyed by the thousand here by those same atoms of matter by means of which your body originated in birth here”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prāktana (प्राक्तन).—n (S) Fate, fortune, destiny.

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prāktana (प्राक्तन).—a S Early, primitive, anterior, antecedent.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prāktana (प्राक्तन).—n Fate, fortune, destiny.

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prāktana (प्राक्तन).—a Early, primitive.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prāktana (प्राक्तन).—a. (- f.)

1) Former, previous, antecedent; प्रपेदिरे प्राक्तनजन्मविद्याः (prapedire prāktanajanmavidyāḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.3.

2) Old, ancient, early.

3) Relating to a former life or acts in a former life; संस्काराः प्राक्तना इव (saṃskārāḥ prāktanā iva) R.1.2; Kumārasambhava 6.1.

-nam (or [prāktanakarman]) n. Fate, destiny.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāktana (प्राक्तन).—mfn.

(-naḥ-nī-naṃ) 1. Old, ancient. 2. Prior, anterior, preceding, former. E. prāk formerly, ṭhyul aff. and tan aug.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāktana (प्राक्तन).—i. e. prāñc + tana, adj., f. . 1. Old. 2. Prior, former, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 160.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāktana (प्राक्तन).—[feminine] ī former, previous, ancient.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāktana (प्राक्तन):—[from prāñc] mf(ī)n. former, prior, previous, preceding, old, ancient (opp. to idānīntana), [Harivaṃśa; Raghuvaṃśa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāktana (प्राक्तन):—[(naḥ-nā-naṃ) a.] Old, ancient.

[Sanskrit to German]

Praktana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Praktana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Prāktana (प्राक्तन) [Also spelled praktan]:—(a) former; olden, ancient.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Prāktana (ಪ್ರಾಕ್ತನ):—[adjective] belonging to history; of times long past.

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Prāktana (ಪ್ರಾಕ್ತನ):—

1) [noun] historical period.

2) [noun] a scholar in archaeology; an archaeologist.

3) [noun] what will necessarily happen to any person or thing which is supposed to be predetermined.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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