Prakirnaka, aka: Prakīrṇaka; 5 Definition(s)


Prakirnaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[Prakirnaka in Vyakarana glossaries]

Prakīrṇaka (प्रकीर्णक).—One of the six devices which form the requisite qualifications of Sanskrit grammar;—Prakīrṇaka is a collection of two or more sūtras to give a specific sense. It is also not found in the uṇādi-sūtras.

(Source): Uṇādi-Sūtras In The Sanskrit Grammatical Tradition
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

[Prakirnaka in Dharmashastra glossaries]

Prakīrṇaka (प्रकीर्णक) refers to “miscellaneous”, and is commonly classified as one of the eighteen vyavahārapada, or “law titles” in the ancient Dharmaśāstras. These vyavahārapadas are categories of ‘legal procedures’ and define a major type of crime for which a person may be tried. The term is derived from vyavahāra (“lawsuits” or “case”) which defines the case between the plaintiff and the defendant, which is often related to social and commercial transactions.

Prakīrṇaka is mentioned in the following sources as one of the eighteen vyavahārapadas: the Arthaśāstra (3.16.38), the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (2.5) and the Nāradasmṛti (mātṛkā 1.30).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Prakirnaka in Jainism glossaries]

Prakīrṇaka (प्रकीर्णक).—One of the ten sub-types of gods (devas), according to Jain cosmology. They are also known by the name Prakīrṇa. The occupation of the prakīrṇaka is to act as ordinary townsman or villagers.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Prakīrṇaka (प्रकीर्णक, “citizens”) refers to one of the ten grades (ranks) of celestial beings (deva), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.4. These celestial beings (devas, gods) are of four orders /classes” and each class of celestial beings has ten grades (eg., Prakīrṇaka).

Who are called citizens (prakīrṇaka)? The citizens are like the citizens such as town folk, peasants, etc.

2) Prakīrṇaka (प्रकीर्णक, “scattered stars”) refers to a class of “stellar celestial beings” (jyotiṣī), itself a category of devas (celestial beings), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.10. Where are the scattered stars situated? The lowest stars amongst the stellar celestial revolve 790 yojana above the citra earth level.

Stellar celestial beings (eg., Prakīrṇaka) are named after their vehicle which is endowed with shining light. These are called by the significant general name luminaries or stellar.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Prakirnaka in Sanskrit glossaries]

Prakīrṇaka (प्रकीर्णक).—a. Scattered or strewn about &c.

-kaḥ, -kam 1 A chowrie, fly-flap (cāmara); Śi.12.17; प्रकीर्णकं पार्श्वंग- पाणिकम्पितम् (prakīrṇakaṃ pārśvaṃga- pāṇikampitam) Śāhendra.3.14; विप्रकीर्णं क्वचिच्छस्त्रं प्रकीर्णकमपि क्वचित् (viprakīrṇaṃ kvacicchastraṃ prakīrṇakamapi kvacit) Śiva B.21.53;22.6.

2) A tuft of hair used as an ornament for horses.

-kaḥ A horse.

-kam 1 A miscellany, any collection of miscellaneous things.

2) A miscellaneous chapter.

3) A section, chapter or division of a book.

4) A case not provided by the Śāstras and to be decided by the judge or king.

5) Extent, length (of a book &c.).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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