Pradvivaka, Prāḍvivāka, Prad-vivaka, Prach-vivaka: 9 definitions

Introduction

Pradvivaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pradvivaka in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Prāḍvivāka (प्राड्विवाक).—A judge, to be banished for miscarriage of justice.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 227. 160-1.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)

Prāḍvivāka (प्राड्विवाक, “ministers”).—The king (nṛipa) should appoint Prāḍvivāka who is proficient in Dharma and Tattva-śāstras. Śukra Says that the Prāḍvivāka is so called because he asks questions and is therefore prāḍ (derived from the root prach, prāś?). It means one who puts questions to the parties and witness in disputes. He analyses the cases and judges the disputes or states what should be done and is therefore vivāka.

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Prāḍvivāka (प्राड्विवाक, “judge”) refers to a classification of persons who “move about in public”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 34. Accordingly, “Those who know well about litigation, and the true nature of pecuniary transactions, are intelligent, and well-versed in many departments of knowledge, impartial, followers of Dharma, wise, able to discriminate between good and bad deeds, and are forbearing and self-controlled, and can control anger, are not haughty and have similar respect for all, should be placed in seats of justice as judges (prāḍvivāka)”.

Note: The radical meaning of the term prāḍvivāka is one who decides a cause after questioning the parties.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Prāḍvivāka.—(HD), the chief justice; a judge. See Manusmṛti, IX. 234. Note: prāḍvivāka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Pradvivaka in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prāḍvivāka (प्राड्विवाक).—A judge, the presiding officer in a court of law; प्राड्- विवाकोऽनुयुञ्जीत विधिना तेन सान्त्वयन् (prāḍ- vivāko'nuyuñjīta vidhinā tena sāntvayan) Ms.8.79,181;9.234.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāḍvivāka (प्राड्विवाक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A judge, a magistrate. E. prāṭ who asks, and vivāka who decides or discriminates.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prāḍvivāka (प्राड्विवाक).—i. e. prāch -vi-vac + a, m. A judge, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 79; 181; 9, 234.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prāḍvivāka (प्राड्विवाक):—[=prāḍ-vivāka] a See under 3. prāś, p. 709, col. 2.

2) [=prāḍ-vivāka] [from prāś] b m. ‘one who interrogates and discriminates’, a judge ([especially] the chief j° of a stationary court), [Manu-smṛti; Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Bharata-nāṭya-śāstra] (cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 296, 1]).

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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