Paurusha, Pauruṣa: 21 definitions
Paurusha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Pauruṣa can be transliterated into English as Paurusa or Paurusha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Pauruṣa (पौरुष) refers to “manliness and valour” and is used to describe Tāraka-Asura, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “That Varāṅgī, when the time was complete, delivered of a son of huge body and great strength dazzling the ten quarters. [...] Then Kaśyapa Prajāpati thought well and named the powerful demon Tāraka. That heroic demon, with his manliness and valour [i.e., pauruṣa] manifesting quickly grew and developed with his steely frame like the lord of mountains. Then the demon Tāraka, of great strength and exploit, endowed with a lofty mind, requested permission of his mother for performing penance. [...]”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Pauruṣa (पौरुष).—See Utthānam.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 221. 2.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Pauruṣa (पौरुष) refers to the “size of a man with his arms and hands uplifted”, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 1.57.—(In “jave’pi māne'pi ca pauruṣādhikam”)
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Pauruṣa (पौरुष) refers to “virility”, as mentioned in verse 5.12 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] (those) [rivers, viz., nadī] again springing from the Sahya and Vindhya; [produce] leprosy, jaundice, and diseases of the head; (those) coming from the Pāriyātra (are) destructive of the (three) humours (and) promotive of strength and virility [viz., bala-pauruṣa-kārin]”.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Pauruṣa (पौरुष):—[pauruṣaṃ] (1) Penis. (2) Prostrate. (3) A measure . Full length of a man with his hands. (4) The male organ of copulation and in mammals urination. (5) A gland that surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra in the male.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Pauruṣa (पौरुष) refers to “(that which relates to) person”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] I will now expound the sixfold introduction to the differentiated (sakala aspect). The Śāmbhava (state), supreme and tranquil, is above the six (Wheels). It is liberation (kaivalya), unique (kevala), tranquil, devoid of the Five Voids and beneficial. It is consciousness, supreme and pure. It is the inexplicable (kiñcit) Śāmbhava (state) that is pure consciousness (cinmātra). It is supreme. It is the supreme Nirvāṇa, the body made of consciousness along with Śiva. The subtle, pure consciousness of the Person [i.e., cinmātra-pauruṣa] is said to be subtle and omnipresent. (Thus) consciousness is said to be of three kinds, Individual (āṇava), Empowered (śākta), and Śāmbhava.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)
Pauruṣa (पौरुष) refers to “male” (=masculine), according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—Accordingly, “Know bindu to be of two kinds (dvividha), male (pauruṣa) and female. Semen (bīja) is said to be the male [bindu] and rajas (female generative fluid) is female. As a result of their external union people are created. When they are united internally, then one is declared a yogi. [...]
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pauruṣa (पौरुष).—a S Manly, human, relating to man.
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pauruṣa (पौरुष).—n S The property of manhood, virility, manliness. 2 Strength, power, vigor. 3 m f n The measure of a man,--his height with both arms elevated and the fingers extended.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Pauruṣa (पौरुष).—a. (-ṣī f.) [पुरुष अण् (puruṣa aṇ)]
1) Relating to a man or man in general, human.
2) Manly, virile.
3) Secred to Puruṣa..
-ṣaḥ A weight which can be carried by one man; Manusmṛti 8.44.
-ṣī A woman.
-ṣam 1 Human action, man's work, exertion, effort; धिग् धिग् वृथा पौरुषम् (dhig dhig vṛthā pauruṣam) Bhartṛhari 2.88; दैवं निहत्य कुरु पौरुषमात्मशक्त्या (daivaṃ nihatya kuru pauruṣamātmaśaktyā) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.361; 2.85.
2) (a) Heroism, prowess, valour, manliness, courage; पौरुषभूषणः (pauruṣabhūṣaṇaḥ) R.15.28;8.28. (b) Strength, power, vigour.
3) Virility; पौरुषं नृषु (pauruṣaṃ nṛṣu) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 7.8; स्त्रीभूतश्च परं मासं न स्मरिष्यसि पौरुषम् (strībhūtaśca paraṃ māsaṃ na smariṣyasi pauruṣam) Rām.7.87.29.
4) Semen virile.
6) The full height of a man, the height to which he reaches with both arms elevated and the fingers extended; जवेऽपि मानेऽपि च पौरुषाधिकम् (jave'pi māne'pi ca pauruṣādhikam) N.1.57.
7) Sun-dial.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Pauruṣa (पौरुष).—(= Pali porisa; compare next three), servant, henchman, attendant: yama-°ṣāḥ Mahāvastu i.12.5 (verse); pau- could be m.c. for pu-.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pauruṣa (पौरुष).—mfn. subst.
(-ṣaḥ-ṣī-ṣaṃ) The measure of a man, equal to the height to which he reaches with both arms elevated, and the fingers extended. Adj. Manly, of or belonging to man. n.
(-ṣaṃ) 1. The property of manhood, virility, manliness. 2. Action, or action incidental to the state of humanity. 3. Semen virile. 4. Strength, power, vigour, heroism. 5. The Penis. 6. A Sundial. E. puruṣa a man, aff. aṇ.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pauruṣa (पौरुष).—i. e. puruṣa + a, I. adj., f. ṣī. 1. Manly, Mahābhārata 12, 718. 2. Human, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 27, 26. 3. Sacred to Puruṣa; epithet of a holy text, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 251. 4. Having the measure of a man with both arms elevated and the fingers extended. Ii. m. The load which a man may bear, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 404 ([Kullūka Schol. ed. [Mānavadharmaśāstra]]? perhaps a full grown man). Iii. n. 1. Manhood, manliness, Mahābhārata 13, 542. 2. Action of men, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 85; man’s work, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 58, 22. 3. Strength, vigour, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 102. 4. Membrum virile.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pauruṣa (पौरुष).—[feminine] ī human, manly, belonging or consecrated to Puruṣa. —[masculine] a man’s load; [feminine] ī a woman; [neuter] manhood, virility, manly deed, a man’s length.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Pauruṣa (पौरुष):—1. pauruṣa mf(ī)n. ([from] puruṣa) manly, human, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) belonging or sacred to Puruṣa, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
3) = puruṣa-dvayasa, -daghna or -mātra, [Pāṇini 5-2, 37; 38]
4) m. a weight or load which can be carried by one man, [Manu-smṛti viii, 404] ([Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti])
5) Name of a Rākṣasa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa] ([varia lectio] pauruṣeya)
6) n. manhood, virility (opp. to strītva), [Rāmāyaṇa]
7) manliness, manly strength or courage or deed, valour, heroism, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
8) force (opp. to buddhi, ‘intellect’), [Kathāsaritsāgara]
9) a man’s length, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
10) a generation, [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
11) semen virile, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) the penis, [Suśruta]
13) a sun-dial, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) 2. pauruṣa Vṛddhi form of puruṣa in [compound]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pauruṣa (पौरुष):—[(ṣaḥ-ṣā-ṣaṃ)] 1. m. f. n. The measure of a man with arms erect. n. Manhood; action; semen virile; strength. a. Manly.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Paurūṣa (पौरूष):—(nm) manhood, manliness, masculinity; virility; ~[hīna] unmanly, impotent; —[thakanā] one’s virility to be on the decline, to be no more as much of a vigorous man.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
Paurusa (पौरुस) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Pauruṣa.
Paurusa has the following synonyms: Paurisa.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [adjective] of or relating to men; characterstic of an adult man.
2) [adjective] having manly strength or vigour; forceful; virile.
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1) [noun] the state or quality of being virile; manly character, vigour, bravery, courage or spirit; masculinity; virility.
2) [noun] human effort (as distinguished from the power of destiny).
3) [noun] that much quantity which a man can carry on his shoulder or head at a time.
4) [noun] the normal height of a man, used as a measure of depth or height (approx. six feet).
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Paurusa (ಪೌರುಸ):—[adjective] = ಪೌರುಷ [paurusha]1.
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Paurusa (ಪೌರುಸ):—[noun] = ಪೌರುಷ [paurusha]2.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Paurushada, Paurushaka, Paurushakarin, Paurushamedhika, Paurushamga, Paurushamjnana, Paurushamsakin, Paurushasakin, Paurushasukta, Paurushata, Paurushatva, Paurushavada, Paurushavadi, Paurushavamta, Paurushavidhika.
Ends with: Adhipaurusha, Apaurusha, Cinmatrapaurusha, Dvipaurusha, Galitapaurusha, Kakapaurusha, Kritapaurusha, Nishpaurusha, Saptapaurusha, Sphutapaurusha, Tivrapaurusha, Tripaurusha, Vakpaurusha, Vivritapaurusha.
Full-text (+44): Porisa, Paurisa, Kritapaurusha, Vivritapaurusha, Apaurusha, Tripaurusha, Paurushya, Paurushata, Saptapaurusha, Pratipaurushika, Tivrapaurusha, Nishpaurusha, Kharma, Paurushatva, Parabhaga, Paurushika, Apaurusheya, Paurushavidhika, Skandh, Paurushamedhika.
Search found 31 books and stories containing Paurusha, Pauruṣa, Paurusa, Paurūṣa; (plurals include: Paurushas, Pauruṣas, Paurusas, Paurūṣas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Kautilya Arthashastra (by R. Shamasastry)
Chapter 20 - Measurement of Space and Time < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Jnaneshwari (Bhavartha Dipika) (by Ramchandra Keshav Bhagwat)
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 11.251 < [Section XXXII - Expiation of Secret Sins]
Verse 8.404 < [Section XLVIII - Laws relating to Civic Misdemeanours]
Verse 7.102 < [Section IX - Art of Government]
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 7.8 < [Chapter 7 - Vijñāna-Yoga (Yoga through Realization of Transcendental Knowledge)]
Verse 18.25 < [Chapter 18 - Mokṣa-yoga (the Yoga of Liberation)]
Chaitanya Bhagavata (by Bhumipati Dāsa)
Verse 2.10.279 < [Chapter 10 - Conclusion of the Lord’s Mahā-prakāśa Pastimes]
Verse 1.1.50 < [Chapter 1 - Summary of Lord Gaura’s Pastimes]
Verse 1.13.173-174 < [Chapter 13 - Defeating Digvijayī]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 8 - Energy of Free-will (Pauruṣa) < [Chapter XII - The Philosophy of the Yogavāsiṣṭha]
Part 11 - Methods of Right Conduct < [Chapter XII - The Philosophy of the Yogavāsiṣṭha]
Part 12 - Yoga-vāsiṣṭha, Śaṅkara Vedānta and Buddhist Vijñānavāda < [Chapter XII - The Philosophy of the Yogavāsiṣṭha]