Pashcima, Paścima, Paścimā: 24 definitions


Pashcima means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Paścima and Paścimā can be transliterated into English as Pascima or Pashcima, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Pashchima.

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In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Paścima (पश्चिम) or Paścimajana refers to the “men of western countries”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Aquarius (Kumbha), hill men, men of western countries [i.e., paścima-jana], carriers, robbers, shephards, serpents, worthy men, lions, citizens and the people of Barbara will perish. If when in the sign of Pisces (Mīna), the products of the sea beach and of the sea, man of respectability and of learning and persons that live by water will suffer. Also those provinces will be affected which correspond to particular lunar mansions in which the eclipses happen to occur, as will be explained in the chapter (14) on Kūrmavibhāga”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Paścima (पश्चिम) refers to the “last (birth)” (i.e., before attaining liberation), according to the Janmasūtra.—Accordingly, “The Kaulika (reality) manifests in the seventh birth, that of the Śāmbhava state, which is the last (paścima). These Siddhas in the Western House attain the goal in (this) the Kali Age. A Bauddha is in the first life and a Jaina in the second. (Then) a Vedika (bhaṭṭa) is in the third, a Vaiṣṇava in the fourth, a worshipper of the Sun (Saura) in the fifth and (a Śaiva), the most excellent, in the sixth. The seventh (birth is in) the Western House, which is the Teaching of the Three Lineages”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Paścima (पश्चिम) refers to the “western (entrance of a temple)”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] I approach the great temple of goddess Mṛḍānī that opens to the west (paścima-dvāra). It is guarded outside by Indra and the other [gods who guard the directions], and shines beautifully with utmost richness. I venerate the young elephant-faced master of Śiva’s gaṇas, the destroyer of obstacles. His lotus-hands are decorated with a noose, goad, fruit, and lotus. [...]

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Pashcima in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Paścima (पश्चिम) refers to the “last (rites)”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 19.54.—Accordingly: “The ministers joined by the chaplain who knew the last rites (paścima-kratu-vid) placed him on the pyre in secret in the palace garden, under the pretext of a ceremony that averts disease”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pashcima in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Paścima (पश्चिम) refers to the “back” (of the Yogin’s body), according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [Now], I shall define the nature of that highest, mind-free absorption which arises for those devoted to constant practice. [...] By means of an absorption for a fourth of a Kalā (i.e., ninety breaths), [Kuṇḍalinī] who flows along the path [called] Suṣumnā, goes partially through [this] path [which is] at the back (paścima) of the [Yogin's] body. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Croaking Frogs

Paścima (पश्चिम), which means “western” or “hinder”, is connected with the adjective paśca, which can also mean “behind”. Some modern books on yoga say the name refers to “stretching the back”.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Paścima (पश्चिम, “west”) represents one of the “ten directions” (diś in Sanskrit or disā in Pali) according to an appendix included in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV). Paścimā is a Sanskrit word which is known in Pali as pacchimā, in Tibetan as nub and in Chinese as si.

2) Paścima (पश्चिम, “west”).—According to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra Chapter XV (the arrival of the Bodhisattvas of the ten directions), “in the west (paścima), beyond universes as numerous as the sands of the Ganges and at the extreme limit of these universes, there is a universe called Mie ngo (Upaśantā); its Buddha is called Pao chan (Ratnārcis) and its bodhisattva Yi pi (Cāritramati).”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Paścima (पश्चिम) refers to the “latter (time or age)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the bodhisatva Gaganagañja addressed himself to the Lord: ‘O Lord, please give the Tathāgata’s blessing over this exposition of the dharma so that, in the latter time (paścima-kāla), in the latter age (paścima-samaya), it will be disseminated and practiced throughout the Jambūdvīpa’. The Lord said: ‘For that reason, son of good family, I will invoke the Four Great Kings so that they will come and strive to keep this exposition of the dharma for a long time with detailed and analytical explanation’”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Paścima (पश्चिम) refers to the “west” (i.e., ‘the western direction’), according to the Nāmamantrārthāvalokinī by Vilāsavajra, which is a commentary on the Nāmasaṃgīti.—Accordingly, [while describing Ādibuddha]—“[...] [The Ādibuddha] has five faces. [...] [His five faces] have five [different] colours: dark blue for the east [and forward-facing face], yellow for the south, red for the west (paścimapaścimena raktam), [and] green for the north. On the top, he has a white face, the face of [the deity] Paramāśva. [...]”.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Paścima (पश्चिम) refers to the “western direction” (or bank of a river) [i.e., maṇirohiṇyāḥ paścima-digbhāge], according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Paścima (पश्चिम) was the previous incarnation of Meghavāhana (one of the sons of Rāvaṇa), according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.8 [The abandonment of Sītā] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, as Muni Aprameyabala said to Śakrajit (Indrajit) and Meghavāhana: “In the city Kauśāmbī here in Bhārata you were two poor brothers, Prathama and Paścima. One day after hearing dharma from Muni Bhavadatta they took the vow and became mendicants, their passions subdued. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paścima (पश्चिम).—f (S) The west. 2 The west wind.

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paścima (पश्चिम).—a (S) West, western. 2 Posterior, hinder.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paścima (पश्चिम).—a. [paścādbhavaḥ ḍimac]

1) Being behind, hindmost; पराभूतेरधर्मस्य तमसश्चापि पश्चिमः (parābhūteradharmasya tamasaścāpi paścimaḥ) Bhāgavata 2.6.9.

2) Last (in time or space); पश्चिमे वयसि वर्तमानस्य (paścime vayasi vartamānasya) K.25; R.19.1,54; पश्चिमाद्यामिनीयामात् प्रसादमिव चेतना (paścimādyāminīyāmāt prasādamiva cetanā) R.17.1; स्मरन्तः पश्चिमामाज्ञाम् (smarantaḥ paścimāmājñām) 17.8; पत पश्चिमयोः पितुः पादयोः (pata paścimayoḥ pituḥ pādayoḥ) Mu.7; °क्रिया (kriyā) the last i. e. funeral rites; °अवस्था (avasthā) last state (verging on death); Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.

3) The latter; उपारताः पश्चिमरात्रिगोचरात् (upāratāḥ paścimarātrigocarāt) Kirātārjunīya 4.1.

4) Western, westerly; आसमुद्रात् तु वै पूर्वादासमुद्रात् तु पश्चिमात् । तयोरेवान्तरं गिर्योरार्यावर्तं विदुर्बुधाः (āsamudrāt tu vai pūrvādāsamudrāt tu paścimāt | tayorevāntaraṃ giryorāryāvartaṃ vidurbudhāḥ) || Manusmṛti 2.22;5.92. (paścimena is used adverbially in the sense of 'in the west') or 'after, behind'; with acc. or gen.; so पश्चिमे (paścime) 'in the west'. पश्चिमतः (paścimataḥ) from behind.

Derivable forms: paścimaḥ (पश्चिमः).

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Paścimā (पश्चिमा).—The west.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Paścima (पश्चिम).—adj. (= Pali pacchima; Sanskrit not in this meaning), (last =) lowest, mean, vulgar: °mā janatā (Pali id., Vin. ii.108.19), vulgar folk, Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 182.15, 18.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paścima (पश्चिम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. West, western. 2. Behind, after. mf.

(-maḥ-mā) The region of Varuna, the west. E. paścāt behind, and ḍimac aff.; Hindus in their prayers, usually facing the east; and consequently having the west behind them.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paścima (पश्चिम).—i. e. paśca (cf. paścāt) + ima, adj., f. . 1. Hinder, last; with saṃdhyā, The evening twilight, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 101; with kriyā, Obsequies. 2. Western, west, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 22.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paścima (पश्चिम).—[adjective] hinder, hindmost, westerly, latter, last; [feminine] ā + saṃdhyā the evening twilight, + kriyā the last rite i.e. burning the dead, ±diś the west.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paścima (पश्चिम):—[from paśca] mf(ā)n. being behind, hinder, later, last, final (f(ā). , with kriyā, the last rite id est. burying the dead; with saṃdhyā, the latter id est. the evening twilight; with velā, evening time, close of day; with avasthā, last state id est. verging on death), [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] west, western, westerly (ā f. with or sc. diś, the west), [Manu-smṛti; Kāvya literature] etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paścima (पश्चिम):—[(maḥ-mā-maṃ) a.] West; behind.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Paścima (पश्चिम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paccatthima, Paccatthimā, Pacchima, Pacchimā, Pacchilla, Pacchillaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pashcima in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pashcima in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Paścima (पश्चिम) [Also spelled paschim]:—(nm) west; (a) western; ~[mārddha] the latter/later/western half; ~[] western; ~[mottara] west-northern.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paścima (ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ):—

1) [noun] the direction in which sunset occurs (at the equinox); west.

2) [noun] the rear or hinder part of anything; the part behind or at the back.

3) [noun] someone who or something which comes last.

4) [noun] (yoga.) the mystical circle, last of six (nine according to some) such circles in the human body, awakening of the dormant energy in which is supposed to release super-human powers and absolute bliss.

5) [noun] European or American continent or any nation of these continents.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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