Paryayokti, Paryāyokti: 5 definitions

Introduction:

Paryayokti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Paryāyokti (पर्यायोक्ति) or Paryāyokta refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Most of the Ālaṃkārikas have discussed the figure named paryāyokta and not paryāyokti. Bhāmaha is the first to define it (K.A. III/8).

When an idea is stated in a manner which is different from the normal mode, it is the figure paryāyokta. Udbhaṭa and Daṇḍin treat it in the manner of Bhāmaha. From the definition of paryāyokta of the ancient and modern Ālaṃkārikas it appears that some kind of suggestion may be there. So Ānandavardhana at first is hesitant to give this figure the status of dhvani. Ultimately he declares paryāyokta as a guṇibhūtavyaṅga type of poetry (D.H.V.Vṛ.III/P.36 Dr. Krishnamoorthy’s edn.). Keeping in view Ānandavardhana’s stand Ālaṃkārikes like Ruyyaka (A.S.P. III) Viśvanātha (X/79), Jagannātha (R.G. II/P. 547) have defined it in the same way.

Cirañjiva has defined paryāyokti in a different manner. In his opinion when a cause becomes expressed by the knowledge of the effect, it is the figure paryāyokti—“phalena prakaṭībhūte paryāyoktistu kāraṇe”. Perhaps Cirañjīva has been inspired by Jayadeva who assigns the same name paryāyokti and defines it in a similar fashion.

Example of the paryāyokta-alaṃkāra:—

nijāśrubhiḥ pūritabhūprādeśāḥ pipāsayā pītapayaḥpravāhāḥ |
vanīrghanībhūtadarīrgirīṇāmaripriyāḥ prāṇabhiyā śrayanti ||

“Those who are favourite of the enemies, who have filled up the surface of the land with own tears and who have drunk the flows of water out of thrust have taken refuse in the condensed cave of the mountains and in the forest out of fear of their own lives”.

Notes: Here from taking refuse in the caves of mountains of the persons who are the target of the enemies, the uprooting of those persons by the enemies which is the cause gets unfolded. So it is an example of paryāyokti.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paryayokti in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paryāyokti (पर्यायोक्ति):—[=pary-āyokti] [from pary-āya > parī] f. idem, [Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paryāyokti (पर्यायोक्ति):—[paryāyo+kti] (ktiḥ-kti) 2. f. 1. n. Figurative language by which more is understood than expressed.

[Sanskrit to German]

Paryayokti in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paryayokti in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paryāyōkti (ಪರ್ಯಾಯೋಕ್ತಿ):—[noun] = ಪರ್ಯಾಯೋಕ್ತ [paryayokta].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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