Paryanka, Paryaṅka, Paryamka: 22 definitions


Paryanka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) refers to a “cot” [“couch”?], according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, while describing the Mūrti (visualized iconic form) of the goddess Mālinī: “She is like the rising sun and is blissful with wine. Very beautiful, she has five faces and is radiant with five time three eyes. [...] Three wrinkles (adorn her) middle part and she has large, upraised breasts. She has a necklace and bracelets adorned with jewels and gems. The goddess sits in the adamantine posture on a cot [i.e., preta-paryaṅka-saṃsthitā]. She wears a garland of vowels on her head and a divine necklace of letters around her neck”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) refers to “seats” (e.g., ‘she who is furnished with seats and pillows’), according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] She is elegantly seated on a lofty couch studded with jewels, furnished with seats (paryaṅka) and pillows, and decorated with a canopy of pearls. Her face is a fully developed lotus. She has a row of chowries being shaken around her, and her beaming lotus-face surpasses beautiful lotuses. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Paryanka in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) refers to a “couch”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.18 (“Description of the perturbation caused by Kāma”).—Accordingly, after Śiva spoke to Pārvatī: “Thus resuming detachment, lord Śiva forbade her sitting on the couch [i.e., paryaṅka-āsādana]. How can there be a downfall for the great lord Śiva?”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क).—1000 hooded serpent shedding golden lustre as bed of the Lord.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 24. 11, 17.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) is a Sanskrit word referring to a “couch” or “sofa”.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) is the name of a sitting posture for meditation, and is used to describe Vajravārāhī, according to the Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—Vajravārāhī appears both with Cakrasaṃvara, and on her own, both as Vajravārāhī and Vajrayoginī. On her own as Vajravārāhī she appears dancing in half paryaṅka, (ardhaparyaṅka-nṛtyā) the most common posture for Ḍākinīs. Paryaṅka is a common sitting posture for meditation, where the bent knees point forward, feet point back, with hamstrings resting on the calves. Dancing in half paryaṅka, is a standing posture, where one leg is lifted in ardhaparyaṅka, and the other is on the ground, indicating a joyous and passionate Buddha nature. [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) refers to “(being seated) cross-legged”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [as the Bhagavān teaches the offering of the root spell], “[...] Having taken brownish cow dung that has not touched the ground and taking ghee, milk and cow urine, one should mix it with seven seeds and flour. Having enchanted it ninety times with that mantra, a five-headed Nāga should be made. It should be hooded with jewels, seated cross-legged (baddha-paryaṅka), coiled, and having smeared it with white sandal and saffron, it should be placed on a pure seat. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The Jaina Iconography

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) or Saṃparyaṅka refers to one of the various āsanas (postures) commonly depcited in Jain iconography.—Glossed as Padmāsana, which, in the Jaina Yogic texts, is described as a posture in which the Jaina or any devotee squats on a seat with legs folded, the right leg being on the left thigh and the left leg on the right thigh, while the eyes are fixed upon the tip of the nose. The position of the arms varies. There is a religious prescription to the effect that the image of Mahāvīra, Ṛṣabhanātha and Neminātha should be constructed in this posture or Āsana. The extant sculptures of the Tīrthaṃkaras mentioned do not always support the injunction.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) or Paryaṅkāsana is the name of a posture (āsana), according to chapter 2.1 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Note: Paryaṅka refers to the posture of the seated statues of Jinas. The legs are crossed so the foot of one lies on the other about the knee, with the sole up. The hands are held at the waist, the right oh top of the left, with the palms up.—(cf. Yogaśāstra 4.125)

Accordingly, “the elephant of kings (i.e., Vimalavāhana) dismounted from the elephant’s shoulder and entered the garden, like a lion a mountain-cave. [...] He saw monks there, too, some in the [viz., paryaṅka-posture, ...] some engaged in kāyotsarga, and some in ukṣa-posture, indifferent to the body, who had carried out their vows in the midst of numerous attacks, like soldiers in battles, victorious over internal enemies, enduring trials, powerful from penance and meditation [...] The King, with devotion sprouted in the guise of horripilation, as it were, approached Ācārya Arindama and paid homage to him”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) refers to “sitting cross-legged”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “On a flat piece of wood or stone, on the ground or on sandy soil, the wise [person] should adopt a stable posture for the accomplishment of absorption. Thus, sitting cross-legged (paryaṅka), sitting half cross-legged, thunderbolt, hero posture and the previously mentioned pleasant and lotus [postures] as well as abandonment of the body is highly thought of. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paryaṅka (पर्यंक).—m S A bedstead, couch, cot.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

paryaṅka (पर्यंक).—m A bedstead. couch.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क).—

1) A bed, couch, sofa; क्वचिद् भूमौ शायी क्वचिदपि च पर्यङ्कशयनः (kvacid bhūmau śāyī kvacidapi ca paryaṅkaśayanaḥ) Bhartṛhari 2.81.

2) A palanquin.

3) A cloth girt round the back, loins, and knees (by a person) when sitting on his hams; cf. अवसक्थिका (avasakthikā)

6) A particular kind of posture practised by ascetics in meditation, sitting on the hams; it is the same as वीरासन (vīrāsana) which is thus defined by Vasiṣṭha :-एकं पादमथैकस्मिन् विन्यस्योरौ तु संस्थितं । इतरस्मिंस्तथैवोरुं वीरासनमुदाहृतम् ॥ पर्यङ्क- ग्रन्थिबन्ध (ekaṃ pādamathaikasmin vinyasyorau tu saṃsthitaṃ | itarasmiṃstathaivoruṃ vīrāsanamudāhṛtam || paryaṅka- granthibandha) &c. Mṛcchakaṭika 1.1.

Derivable forms: paryaṅkaḥ (पर्यङ्कः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) or Paryyaṅka or Palyaṅka.—m.

(-ṅkaḥ) 1. A bed. 2. A cloth thrown over the back, loins, and kneels, while seated upon the hams. The posture is thus described on Vachaspatya, viz:— ekaṃ pādamathaikasmin vinyasyorau tu maṃsthitam . itarasmin tathaivorddhaṃ vīrāsana midaṃ smṛtam .. uttānite karatale pharamuttānitaṃ param . ādhāyāṅka gataṃ kṛtvā dhyāyedyastasya so'ntaram .. E. pari about, aki to go, aff. ac; also ra being optionally changed to la, palyaṅka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क).—i. e. pari-aṅka, m. 1. A couch-bed, a bed, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 190. 2. Sitting on one’s legs in the oriental manner, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 45.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क).—[masculine] couch, bed; the sitting with bent legs upon the hams.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क):—[=pary-aṅka] [from pary-añc] m. (also paly, [Pāṇini 8-2, 22]) a bed, couch, sofa, litter, palanquin, [Kauṣītaki-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (also kikā f., [Kādambarī]; kī-kṛta mfn. turned into a couch, [Gīta-govinda])

2) [v.s. ...] a [particular] mode of sitting on the ground (a squatting position assumed by ascetics and Buddhists in meditation), [Buddhist literature] (cf. below)

3) [v.s. ...] a cloth wound round the back and loins and knees while so sitting, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a mountain (son of Vindhya), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क):—[parya-ṅka] (ṅkaḥ) 1. m. A bed; a couch.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Paryaṅka (पर्यङ्क) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paliaṃka, Paliaṃkā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Paryanka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paryaṃka (ಪರ್ಯಂಕ):—

1) [noun] a piece of furniture with four legs, a flat, rectangular top to lay the bed and sleep on; a cot.

2) [noun] a box-type rectangular cloth case filled with cotton, coir, feathers, down, foam, rubber, etc. used to sleep on; a bed.

3) [noun] a passenger conveyance, usu. for one person, consisting of a covered or boxlike litter carried by means of poles resting on the shoulders of several men; a palanquin.

4) [noun] an oblong, unstitched piece of cloth, used to tie around the waist.

5) [noun] the place of protection; shelter; refuge.

6) [noun] a yogic posture of squating on the floor with the shanks crossing each other and the right foot resting on the left thigh and leftfoot on the right thigh.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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