Parshva, Pārśva: 14 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Parshva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Pārśva can be transliterated into English as Parsva or Parshva, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Pārśva (पार्श्व) refers to the “sides”. It is one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

These are the five kinds of movements made with the sides (pārśva):

  1. nata (bent),
  2. samunnata (raised),
  3. prasārita (extended),
  4. vivartita (turned round)
  5. apasṛta (drawn away).
Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Pārśva (पार्श्व) refers to the “two sides” representing one of the seven “major limbs” (aṅga), which represents a division of Āṅgikābhinaya (gesture language of the limbs) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Āṅgika-abhinaya is the gesture language of the limbs. Dance is an art that expresses itself through the medium of body, and therefore, āṅgikābhinaya is essential for any dance and especially for any classical dance of India. Aṅgas or major limbs include the head, hands, chest, sides (viz., Pārśva), waist, and feet; at times the neck is also used as a separate limb.

Pārśva refers to the “movements of the sides”.—In Bharatanatyam, according to Abhinayadarpaṇa, there are no descriptions of the movements of the hip and the waist. However, in Nāṭyaśāstra, there are five movements each of the sides and the hip.

The movements of the sides (pārśva) are:—

  1. nata (bent),
  2. samunnata (lifted up),
  3. prasārita (extended),
  4. vivartita (turned round),
  5. apasṛta (withdrawn slightly).
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Pārśva (पार्श्व) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.54) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Pārśva) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Pārśva (पार्श्व) is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Pārśva).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Pārśva (पार्श्व):—The twenty-third Tīrthaṅkara (Janism recognizes 24 such teachers or Siddhas). He is also known by the name Pārśvanātha. His colour is green (harita), according to Aparājitapṛcchā (221.5-7). His height is 9 hatha (4 hatha equals 1 dhanuṣa, which equals 6 feet), thus, roughly corresponding to 4.1 meters. His emblem, or symbol, is a Snake.

Pārśva’s father is Aśvasena and his mother is Vāmā according to Śvetāmbara or Varmilā according to Digambara. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Pārśva (पार्श्व) (or Vāmana, Dharaṇendra) is the name of the Yakṣa accompanying Pārśvanātha: the twenty-third of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Pārśvanātha is one of the greatest Tīrthaṃkaras or Prophets of Jainism. [...] From all sources, we gather his emblem or cognizance is a snake. In sculpture, snake seems to be everything with him. Not only do we find snake in the usual place of the symbol, we find, snakes canopy him with three or seven or eleven hoods. His Yakṣa is called Pārśva or Vāmana or Dharaṇendra and Yakṣiṇī is called Padmāvatī. The king, who stands by his side as a Chowri-bearer is known as Ajitarāja. The Devadāru (Deodar) or Dhātaki is his Kevala-tree.

Pārśva Yakṣa of Pārśvanātha is one of the most important amongst the members of his class. His image whether Śvetāmbara or Digambara has the common points of snake-hoods, snake-attribute and a tortoise as vehicle. The Śvetāmbara books, in points of difference, make him appear with four hands holding an ichneumon, snake, citrus and snake (again). The Digambara texts, in turn, give his hands snake, noose and Varada.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Pārśva (पार्श्व) is an example of a name based on some sect mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. Various names indicated Buddhist or Jain sects. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Derivation of personal names (eg., Pārśva) during the rule of the Guptas followed patterns such as tribes, places, rivers and mountains.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pārśva.—(HRS), extra charge upon land over and above the king's grain-share, which was a branch of ‘accidental re- venue’ according to the Arthaśāstra. See Ghoshal, H. Rev. Syst., pp. 28, 38. (IE 8-4), explained by some as a small territorial unit; but may be ‘side’; cf. prāveśya. Note: pārśva is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pārśva (पार्श्व) [or पार्श्विक, pārśvika].—a S Relating to a side of the body, lateral.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pārśva (पार्श्व).—a. Near, proximate.

-rśvaḥ, -rśvam [parśūnāṃ samūhaḥ]

1) The part of the body below the arm-pit, the region of the ribs; वामं पार्श्वं विनिर्भिद्य सुतः सूर्य इव स्थितः (vāmaṃ pārśvaṃ vinirbhidya sutaḥ sūrya iva sthitaḥ) Mb.3. 126.27; शयने सन्निषण्णैकपार्श्वाम् (śayane sanniṣaṇṇaikapārśvām) Me.91.

2) The side, flank (in general) (of animate or inanimate objects), पिठरं क्वथदतिमात्रं निजपार्श्वानेव दहतितराम् (piṭharaṃ kvathadatimātraṃ nijapārśvāneva dahatitarām) Pt.1.324.

3) Vicinity.

4) Ved. A curved knife.

-rśvaḥ An epithet of the twentythird Tīrthaṅkar of the Jainas.

-rśvam 1 A multitude of ribs.

2) A fraudulent expedient, a dishonourable means.

3) The extremity of the fore-axle of a wheel. (pārśvam is used adverbially in the sense of 'near to', 'by the side of', 'towards'; kenāpyutkṣipateva paśya bhuvanaṃ matpārśvamānīyate Ś.7.8; so pārśvāt 'from the side of, away, from'; pārśve 'near', 'at hand', 'at the side'; name dūre kiṃcit kṣaṇamapi na pārśve rathajavāt Ś.1.9; Bh.3.37.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pārśva (पार्श्व).—(m., nt. ?), lying or leaning on one's side, leaning, slouching: in composition with -sukham, (divaṃ nidrā- sukhaṃ) pārśvasukhaṃ śayanasukhaṃ ca svīkurvataḥ Bodhisattvabhūmi 156.18, of one who is attached to the pleasures of sleeping by day or lying (leaning) on his side or (keeping to) his bed; (nidrāsukhaṃ śayanasukhaṃ) pārśvasukhaṃ ca Bodhisattvabhūmi 172.2; as object of verb of giving, (na tv akāle) pārśvam anu- prayacchati mañce vā pīṭhe vā tṛṇasaṃstare vā…Bodhisattvabhūmi 193.(19—)20, but he does not lie down (? lean, slouch; lit. give a side) at improper times on a couch or stool or grass- bed; na jātu pārśvaṃ dattavān, na styāna-middham (q.v.) avakrāmitavān Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 57.10, he did not at all ‘give a side’, nor give way to sloth and torpor; in Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.237.7—8, 11 seems to mean leans, lounges, slouches: (bhikṣavaḥ) pār- śvaṃ dattvā tiṣṭhanti…kimarthaṃ pārśvaṃ dattvā tiṣṭhatha?…kṣudhārtā durbalā jātāḥ, ataḥ (11) pārśvaṃ dattvā sthitāḥ; possibly, however, it may mean stays (at home) lying down.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pārśva (पार्श्व).—mfn.

(-rśvaḥ-rśvā-rśvaṃ) Near, proximate, by the side of. mn.

(-rśvaḥ-rśvaṃ) 1. A side, the part of the body below the armpit. 2. The curve or circumference of a wheel. 3. Side of any square figure. n.

(-rśvaṃ) 1. A multitude of ribs, the thorax. 2. A fraudulent or crooked expedient. m.

(-rśvaḥ) The twenty-third Jina or Jaina pontiff. E. spṛś to touch, śvaṇ Unadi aff., and pṛ substituted for the root; or parśu a rib, aff. aṇ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pārśva (पार्श्व).—i. e. parśu (ved. a rib), + a, n. and m. 1. The part of the body below the armpit. 2. A side, Mahābhārata 13, 2749. 3. = pārṣṇi 3, q. cf. 4. Proximity. 5. ve, loc. Near, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 9. 6. vam, acc. Near to, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 467.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pārśva (पार्श्व).—[neuter] ([masculine]) the region of the ribs, [plural] the ribs; flank, side, immediate neighbour-hood. Acc. near to, towards, [locative] close to, near; [ablative] away from, on the part or by means of.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pārśva (पार्श्व):—[from pārśava] a n. (rarely m. [gana] ardharcādi; ifc. f(ā). [from] 1. parśu) the region of the ribs ([plural] the ribs), side, flank (either of animate or inanimate objects), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] the side = nearness, proximity (with [genitive case] or ifc.; ayaḥ, on both sides; am, aside, towards; e, at the side, near opp. to dura-tas; āt, away, from; by means of, through), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] a curved knife, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] a side of any square figure, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) [v.s. ...] the curve or circumference of a wheel, [ib.]

6) [v.s. ...] (only) a multitude of ribs, the thorax, [Horace H. Wilson]

7) [v.s. ...] the extremity of the fore-axle nearest the wheel to which the outside horses of a four-horse chariot are attached, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] a fraudulent or crooked expedient, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] m. the side horse on a chariot, [Mahābhārata]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of an ancient Buddhist teacher

11) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) Name of the 23rd Arhat of the present Ava-sarpiṇī and of his servant

12) [v.s. ...] ([dual number]) heaven and earth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] mfn. near, proximate (cf. [compound] below).

14) b See [column]1.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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