Parivritti, Parivṛtti: 14 definitions


Parivritti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Parivṛtti can be transliterated into English as Parivrtti or Parivritti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).An exchange between two objects—one superior and the other inferior constitutes the figure parivṛtti. This is the view of Daṇḍin (K.D. II/351) and Udbhaṭa (K.S.S. V/31).

Cirañjīva defines parivṛtti as—“parivṛttirvinimayaścennyūnādhikayormithah”.—“When the mutual exchange between two things—one superior and and the other inferior happens the figure parivṛtti arises”. Acccording to Ruyyaka (A.S. 152) and Viśvanātha (X/105) this mutual exchange takes place among equal inferior and superior things. Cirañjīva has explained the meaning of the word vinimaya used in the definition of paryāya. In his opinion the word vinimaya means the acceptance of one sacrificing another. When a superior thing is described by the poet as obtained by the sacrifice of an inferior thing or vice versa then it is known as parivṛtti.

Example of the parivṛtti-alaṃkāra:—

prāṇān pradāya yudhi mattamataṅgajebhyaḥ krītaṃ yaśaḥ kimapi kairapi vīradhīraiḥ |
kaiścitpunarbhuvi nirarthakajīvitārthaṃ vikrītameva suyaśo vidiśi prayātaiḥ ||

“Some steady heros have attained fame in the battle from the mad elephants by sacrificing their lives where as some others going in the opposite direction have sold their illustrious fame by aspiring for useless life in this world”.

Notes: In the first half of the verse the heroes have attained fame which is superior in this world by sacrificing this mortal life which is inferior. In the second half of this verse it has been said that some even sacrifice their fame which is superior only for living in this mortal world which is inferior. In fact in this world fame is valuable than life because life is not forever but the fame lasts for the years after years to come and forever. To the great persons fame is larger than life. So the above mentioned verse is good example of the figure parivṛtti.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (vaishnavism)

Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति) refers to “wandering in saṃsāra” [?], according to the Vedānta Deśika’s Yatirājasaptati.—When we come to the poem’s understanding of the divinity of Rāmānuja we find a wide spectrum of meanings. [...] Verse 28 is particularly eloquent in describing and encapsulating all his nurturing and protecting qualities, which are compared to those present everywhere in nature itself—as the mountain from which originate all the streams of knowledge, the tree under which the weary traveler wandering in saṃsāra (parivṛtti) takes rest, the rising sun that keeps the illusionary darkness of those with distorted views at bay and the full moon that brings to high tide the ocean of the Vedas.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Parivritti in Ayurveda glossary

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति) [or parivṛtta?] refers to “modification (of flowers or fruits)” which represents one of the bio-organic agricultural methods described in the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “Several special processes with reference to the plants will be described hereunder. They are: [e.g., changing (parivṛtti) the flowers and changing the fruits (puṣpaparivṛttiphalānyatā);] and so on. [...]”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parivritti in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति).—f.

1) Revolution; अभजत परिवृत्तिं साथ पर्यस्तहस्ता (abhajata parivṛttiṃ sātha paryastahastā) Śiśupālavadha 1.91.

2) Return; turning back.

3) Barter, exchange.

4) End, termination.

5) Surrounding.

6) Staying or dwelling in a place.

7) Contraction of the prepuce.

8) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech in which there is an exchange of a thing for what is equal, less or greater; परिवृत्तिर्विनिमयो योऽर्थानां स्यात् समासमैः (parivṛttirvinimayo yo'rthānāṃ syāt samāsamaiḥ) K. P.1; e. q. दत्त्वा कटाक्षमेणाक्षी जग्राह हृदयं मम । मया तु हृदयं दत्त्वा गृहीतो मदनज्वरः (dattvā kaṭākṣameṇākṣī jagrāha hṛdayaṃ mama | mayā tu hṛdayaṃ dattvā gṛhīto madanajvaraḥ) || S. D.734.

9) Substitution of one word for another without affecting the sense; as in; शब्दपरिवृत्तिसहत्वम् (śabdaparivṛttisahatvam) K. P.1; e. g. in वृषध्वज, ध्वज (vṛṣadhvaja, dhvaja) may be substituted by लाञ्छन (lāñchana) or वाहन (vāhana).

Derivable forms: parivṛttiḥ (परिवृत्तिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति).—f.

(-ttiḥ) 1. Exchange, barter. 2. Revolution, return. 3. End, termination. 4. An unmarried elder brother. 5. Surrounding, encompassing. 6. A striking exchange, one producing charm, considered as a figure of speech in rhetoric. E. pari mutually, vṛt to be, ktina aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति).—[pari-vṛt + ti], f. 1. Exchange, barter; instr. Alternately, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 27, 14. 2. Dwelling, Mahābhārata 14, 525.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति).—[feminine] rolling, turning round, turn, return, change, barter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—jy. Oppert. 80. 1900 ([nyāya]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति):—[=pari-vṛtti] [from pari-vṛt] f. turning, rolling, revolution, [Mahābhārata; Śiśupāla-vadha]

2) [v.s. ...] return (into this world), [Āpastamba]

3) [v.s. ...] exchange, barter (ttyā ind. alternately), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] moving to and fro or staying or dwelling in a place, [Mahābhārata]

5) [v.s. ...] end, termination, [Kirātārjunīya]

6) [v.s. ...] surrounding, encompassing, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a kind of figure in which one thing is represented as exchanged with another (e.g. [Mālavikāgnimitra iii, 16]; cf. [Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti iv, 3, 16])

8) [v.s. ...] substitution of one word for another without affecting the sense (e.g. vṛṣa-lāñchana for vṛṣadhvaja), [Kāvyaprakāśa]

9) [v.s. ...] contraction of the prepuce, phimosis (= vartikā), [Suśruta]

10) [v.s. ...] m. [wrong reading] for pari-vitti

11) Parivṛttī (परिवृत्ती):—[=pari-vṛttī] [from pari-vṛtti > pari-vṛt] f. (pari-v), [probably] [wrong reading] for pari-vṛktī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति):—[pari-vṛtti] (ttiḥ) 2. f. Exchange; return; end; surrounding; elder unmarried brother. Also parivitti.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parivṛtti (परिवृत्ति) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Parivitti, Parivudi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parivritti in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parivritti in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parivṛtti (ಪರಿವೃತ್ತಿ):—

1) [noun] a turning or spinning motion of a body around a center or axis; rotation.

2) [noun] the act of returning; a coming back to one’s original or previous position or place.

3) [noun] the state of encircling or being encircled.

4) [noun] the terminal part of something or final point of time of an action, event, existence, etc.; the end.

5) [noun] a giving to one another of similar things; an exchange.

6) [noun] a change in form, quality, position, etc.

7) [noun] the act or an instance of recurring; reoccurrence; repetition.

8) [noun] a complete or radical change of any kind; a revolution.

9) [noun] a sudden change of fortune or reversal of circumstances, as in a drama; peripeties.

10) [noun] (rhet.) a figure of speech in which two actions that look contradictory to each other are described in a complementary manner (as victory of a person is described along with the defeat of his opponent, as complementary to each other).

11) [noun] (rhet.) a substituting of one word for another without affecting the meaning of the total expression in that particular context.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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