Parami, Pāramī: 5 definitions


Parami means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

(Paramī=Pāramitā; “perfection”); Ten qualities leading to Buddha-hood:

  1. perfection in giving (or liberality; dāna-pāramī)
  2. morality (sīla-p.)
  3. renunciation (nekkhamma-p.)
  4. wisdom (paññā-p.)
  5. energy (viriya-p.)
  6. patience (or forbearance; khanti p.)
  7. truthfulness (sacca-p.)
  8. resolution (adhitthāna-p.)
  9. loving-kindness (mettā-p.)
  10. equanimity (upekkhā-p.)

These qualities were developed and brought to maturity by the Bodhisatta in his past existences, and his way of practising them is illustrated in many of the Birth Stories (Jātaka), of which, however, only the verses are regarded as canonical. Apart from the latter, the 10 pāramī are mentioned in only two other canonical works which are probably apocryphal, the Buddhavamsa (in the Story of Sumedha) and the Cariyapitaka. A long and methodical exposition of the pāramī is given in the concluding Miscellaneous Section (pakinnakakathā) of the Com. to Cariyapitaka

In Vis.M. IX it is said that through developing the 4 sublime states (loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy, equanimity; s. brahma-vihāra), one may reach these 10 perfections, namely:

"As the Great Beings (mahā-satta; a synonym often found in the Mahāyana scriptures for Bodhisatta, i.e. 'Enlightenment Being or Being destined for Buddha-hood) are concerned about the welfare of living beings, not tolerating the suffering of beings, wishing long duration to the higher states of happiness of beings, and being impartial and just to all beings, therefore:

  1. they give alms (dāna) to all beings so that they may be happy, without Investigating whether they are worthy or not.
  2. By avoiding to do them any harm, they observe morality (sīla).
  3. In order to bring morality to perfection, they train themselves in renunciation (nekkhamma).
  4. In order to understand clearly what is beneficial and injurious to beings, they purify their wisdom (paññā).
  5. For the sake of the welfare and happiness of others they constantly exert their energy (viriya).
  6. Though having become heroes through utmost energy, they are nevertheless full of forbearance (khanti) toward s the manifold failings of beings.
  7. Once they have promised to give or do something, they do not break their promise ('truthfulness'; sacca).
  8. With unshakable resolution (adhitthāna) they work for the weal and welfare of beings.
  9. With unshakable kindness (mettā) they are helpful to all.
  10. By reason of their equanimity (upekkhā) they do not expect anything in return" (Vis.M. IX.24).

In the Mahāyana scriptures, where the pāramī occupy a much more prominent place, a partly differing list of six is given:

  1. liberality,
  2. morality,
  3. patience,
  4. energy,
  5. meditation
  6. wisdom.
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Pāramī, (f.) (abstr. fr. parama, cp. BSk. mantrāṇāṃ pāramiṃ gata Divy 637) completeness, perfection, highest state Sn. 1018, 1020; Pug. 70; DhA. I, 5; VvA. 2 (sāvakañāṇa°); PvA. 139; Sdhp. 328. In later literature there is mentioned a group of 10 perfections (dasa pāramiyo) as the perfect exercise of the 10 principal virtues by a Bodhisatta, viz. dāna°, sīla°, nekkhamma°, paññā°, viriya°, khanti°, sacca°, adhiṭṭhāna°, mettā°, upekhā° J. I, 73; DhA. I, 84.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

pāramī : (f.) completeness; perfection.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pārami (पारमि).—(f.; = Pali id., in Pali used both as in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit], pāramippatta, °miṃ-gata, Childers, and, usually in the form pāramī, as equivalent of [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] pāramitā 2; [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] seems to use it only once in this latter sense; seems [Page341-b+ 71] clearly deriv. in secondary -a, fem. -ī, from parama), mastery, supremacy; usually in verses; in Lalitavistara 414.19 (verse) read ṣaḍi pārami te, the six supremacies (= pāramitā 2) are thine (see § 19.24); otherwise noted by me only in forms °mi-, °mī-, and (with -gata) most commonly °miṃ-, in composition with following -gata or -prāpta (edd. often print the [compound] as two words), arrived at, attained to mastery, often in composition with preceding word stating the field of mastery, but also used absolutely, aham atra °mī-prāpto Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 35.6 (verse; so ed. with Kashgar recension; Nepalese mss. pāramitā-, [compound] with foll. nirdiṣṭaḥ); or with gen. or loc. preceding; pāramiṃgata Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 451.5 (verse, ṛddhībala-); 453.2 (verse, svara- maṇḍala-), 5 (verse, sarvaguṇa-); Lalitavistara 28.6 (verse, iṣvastraśiṣyeṣu ca); 398.19 (verse, āryadharmeṣv iha); Divyāvadāna 637.5 (verse, printed as prose; mantrāṇāṃ); Mahāvastu i.47.4 (verse, vaśi-, q.v.); 74.4 (verse, ṛddhipādabala-); 129.6 (verse, śastre hi, so divide), for I have attained supremacy in weapons (even beyond you, see ati-r-iva); 164.11 (verse, cittasthititve asi); 166.9 (verse, śreṣṭheṣu dharmeṣu; 3 mss. unmetrical(ly) °mi-gato; the other three °miṃ-gato; Senart em. °mī-gato, why ?); 169.18 (verse, puṇyeṣu); Gaṇḍavyūha 488.22 (verse, sarvabuddhaguṇa-); the preceding nouns are only rarely those included in the lists of pāramitā (2), but such occur with °miṃgata Mahāvastu ii.368.2 (verse, kṣāntiye); Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 5.16 (verse, prajñ' upāya sada); °mi-gata Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 13.11 (verse, dhyāne vīryaguṇe ca); in the last, and in the following cases, it seems likely that the short i is m.c.: mi-gata Lalitavistara 110.7 (verse, vararūpa-, read as [compound]); Mahāvastu i.215.4 and ii.18.1 (verse, rūpa-, in 18.1 read anurūpa-); ii.33.16 (verse, devaguṇa-); iii.355.12 (verse, cittacarita-); but before prāpta I have found °mī-prāpta only in the doubtful passage Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 35.6, above; no certain case of °miṃ-prāpta (compare Mahāvastu i.226.9 below); and otherwise only °mi-prāpta, once in prose, Mahāvastu i.237.12 (uttamadamaśamatha-); and in verses (note that the syllable °mi- may be metrically either long, as in Pali °mippatta, or short!), Lalitavistara 437.12 (vineya-); Śikṣāsamuccaya 324.20; Mahāvastu i.115.7 (vaiśāradyavara-); 152.11 = 226.5 = ii.29.8 (lakṣaṇa- or °ṇa-guṇa-; mss. always °mi-, but the syllable is long in the last two cases, short in the first); i.152.15 = 226.9 (here mss. °miṃ-prāp°! but °mi in the others; syllable is long) = ii.29.12 (lakṣaṇaguṇa-).

Pārami can also be spelled as Pāramī (पारमी).

--- OR ---

Pāramī (पारमी).—see pārami.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parāmi (परामि):—[=parā-√mi] or (only [future] p. -meṣyat), to come back, return, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]

2) Pārami (पारमि):—[from pārama] f. (?) extremity, [Divyāvadāna]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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