Parami, aka: Pāramī; 3 Definition(s)


Parami means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

(Paramī=Pāramitā; “perfection”); Ten qualities leading to Buddha-hood:

  1. perfection in giving (or liberality; dāna-pāramī)
  2. morality (sīla-p.)
  3. renunciation (nekkhamma-p.)
  4. wisdom (paññā-p.)
  5. energy (viriya-p.)
  6. patience (or forbearance; khanti p.)
  7. truthfulness (sacca-p.)
  8. resolution (adhitthāna-p.)
  9. loving-kindness (mettā-p.)
  10. equanimity (upekkhā-p.)

These qualities were developed and brought to maturity by the Bodhisatta in his past existences, and his way of practising them is illustrated in many of the Birth Stories (Jātaka), of which, however, only the verses are regarded as canonical. Apart from the latter, the 10 pāramī are mentioned in only two other canonical works which are probably apocryphal, the Buddhavamsa (in the Story of Sumedha) and the Cariyapitaka. A long and methodical exposition of the pāramī is given in the concluding Miscellaneous Section (pakinnakakathā) of the Com. to Cariyapitaka

In Vis.M. IX it is said that through developing the 4 sublime states (loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic joy, equanimity; s. brahma-vihāra), one may reach these 10 perfections, namely:

"As the Great Beings (mahā-satta; a synonym often found in the Mahāyana scriptures for Bodhisatta, i.e. 'Enlightenment Being or Being destined for Buddha-hood) are concerned about the welfare of living beings, not tolerating the suffering of beings, wishing long duration to the higher states of happiness of beings, and being impartial and just to all beings, therefore:

  1. they give alms (dāna) to all beings so that they may be happy, without Investigating whether they are worthy or not.
  2. By avoiding to do them any harm, they observe morality (sīla).
  3. In order to bring morality to perfection, they train themselves in renunciation (nekkhamma).
  4. In order to understand clearly what is beneficial and injurious to beings, they purify their wisdom (paññā).
  5. For the sake of the welfare and happiness of others they constantly exert their energy (viriya).
  6. Though having become heroes through utmost energy, they are nevertheless full of forbearance (khanti) toward s the manifold failings of beings.
  7. Once they have promised to give or do something, they do not break their promise ('truthfulness'; sacca).
  8. With unshakable resolution (adhitthāna) they work for the weal and welfare of beings.
  9. With unshakable kindness (mettā) they are helpful to all.
  10. By reason of their equanimity (upekkhā) they do not expect anything in return" (Vis.M. IX.24).

In the Mahāyana scriptures, where the pāramī occupy a much more prominent place, a partly differing list of six is given:

  1. liberality,
  2. morality,
  3. patience,
  4. energy,
  5. meditation
  6. wisdom.
Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Discover the meaning of parami in the context of Theravada from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Parami in Pali glossary... « previous · [P] · next »

Pāramī, (f.) (abstr. fr. parama, cp. BSk. mantrāṇāṃ pāramiṃ gata Divy 637) completeness, perfection, highest state Sn. 1018, 1020; Pug. 70; DhA. I, 5; VvA. 2 (sāvakañāṇa°); PvA. 139; Sdhp. 328. In later literature there is mentioned a group of 10 perfections (dasa pāramiyo) as the perfect exercise of the 10 principal virtues by a Bodhisatta, viz. dāna°, sīla°, nekkhamma°, paññā°, viriya°, khanti°, sacca°, adhiṭṭhāna°, mettā°, upekhā° J. I, 73; DhA. I, 84.

—ppatta (pārami°) having attained perfection M. III, 28; Nd2 435; Miln. 21 22; cp. Miln. trsl. I. 34. (Page 454)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

pāramī : (f.) completeness; perfection.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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