Paramartha, Paramārtha, Parama-artha: 27 definitions

Introduction:

Paramartha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Parmarth.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) refers to the “great Truth”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.23 (“Attempt of Himavat to dissuade Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, after Pārvatī spoke to her parents and others: “After addressing thus, her father Himalaya, her mother Menakā, her brothers Maināka and Mandara, the eloquent Pārvatī, the daughter of the king of mountains, kept quiet. Thus addressed by Pārvatī, the lord of mountains and the other mountains went back the way they came, surprised within and praising her. After all of them had departed, she with firm resolve in the great Truth [i.e., paramārtha], accompanied by her maids performed a severe penance. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Paramārtha (परमार्थ).—Illustrated by the life of Nidāgha, a pupil of Ṛbhu.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 14. 16 and 31; chh. 15 and 16.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) refers to:—The ultimate spiritual attainment. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) refers to the “ultimate reality”, according to the Jayadrathayāmala verse 1.12.456-459.—Accordingly, “By reflecting on ultimate reality [i.e., paramārtha], (the energy of the goddess) wanders throughout the whole universe, including the gods, demons and men as the division of pervasion and the pervader. Through the Yoga (lit. ‘union’), by means of which (this energy) is checked (and so appropriated); and by the unfolding of its essential nature, the yogi becomes of that nature, endowed with the very essence of accomplishment. By attaining oneness in this way, Yoga—Āṇava, Śākta and Śāmbhava—has been explained, which illumines the meaning of the teacher’s (instruction)”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) refers to the “ultimate well-being”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] I uninterruptedly remember [you], the Vidyā leading to the ultimate well-being (paramārtha-vidyā), embodiment of bliss, the cause of the extension of all prosperities. [You are] the primordial one, the insurpassable Kalā. You are Bālā, the beloved of Kulanātha (namely, Śiva). [Your] glory is incomparable, and you are filled with many felicities”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Shaivism glossary
Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) refers to the “highest truth” and is used to describe Amṛteśa, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 9.5-11, while explaining the universality of Amṛteśa]—“Amṛteśa is supreme. He is free of disease. His nature is inherent, fully enumerated, constant, eternal, and immovable. [He has] no form or color, and is the highest truth (paramārthaparamārthena vidyate). Because of that, he is omnipresent. The splendid Deva delights in all āgamas, pervades all mantras, and grants all siddhis. In this way, he is like a transparent crystal sewn onto a colored thread, always reflected with its color, [and] seeking [to] look like this and that. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Vedanta glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (Advaita Vedanta)

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) refers to the “supreme truth”, according to Mādhavavidyāraṇya’s Śaṅkaradigvijaya 5.97.—Accordingly, “I [Śaṅkara] desire to know the basis of Brahman from the great sage Gauḍapāda, [who was] the student of the son of Vyāsa. Because of my devotion to [this] one aim, I have found you [my guru, Govinda,] who is full of all good qualities, who has obtained the supreme truth (paramārtha) and whose greatness extends [throughout the land]”.

Vedanta book cover
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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) refers to the “supreme goal”, according to the Gurugītā (60).—Accordingly, “People do not obtain the state of Śiva by [practising] hundreds of prāṇāyāmas, the qualities of which are Sattvic, etc., and their power [widely] praised. [They] remove diseases and are difficult to perform. [However,] by [just] a smidgen of [the Guru’s] compassion, restraint of the mighty breath [occurs] naturally and instantly. [That] Guru who is devoted to contemplation of the supreme goal (paramārtha) and who knows the meaning of the Vedas ought to be served”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Hinduism glossary
Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Paramārtha (499-569 CE) was an Indian monk from Ujjain in central India, who is best known for his prolific Chinese translations which include Vasubandhu’s Abhidharmakośa. Paramārtha is considered one of the greatest translators of sutras in Chinese Buddhism, along with Kumārajīva and Xuanzang.

He was born in the autonomous kingdom of Malwa in central India, at the end of the Gupta Dynasty. His given name was Kulanātha, meaning “savior of the family”, and his parents were Brahmins belonging to the Bhāradvāja clan.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) refers to the “absolute point of view”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXXII-XXXIV).—Accordingly, “... From the absolute point of view (paramārtha), the true nature (bhūtalakṣaṇa) of things, there are no beings (sattva) and there is no salvation (trāṇa). It is merely conventionally that we affirm the existence of salvation. As for you, you seek the absolute (paramārtha) in the conventional (saṃvṛti), which is inadmissible. It is as if you were looking for a precious pearl (maṇiratna) in a brick or a stone: never would you find it there.”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) (Cf. Paramārthasatya) refers to the “highest truth”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] That which makes the space of objects (gocara), being a space without objects, that is the highest truth (paramārtha), and that is why it is called ‘profound’. Because it cannot be grasped by thought and mind, it is difficult to understand, difficult to see, and difficult to comprehend. But he, not dependent on others in respect of knowledge, still teaches this profound guiding principle of dharma to other living beings. This is the entrance into the profound guiding principle of dharma of the Bodhisattva, which is hard for disciples and isolated Buddhas to fathom. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Buddhism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) or paramārthaśūnyatā refers to “ultimate emptiness” one of the “twenty emptinesses” (śūnyatā) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 41). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., paramārtha). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Paramārtha (“ultimate”) or Paramārthasatya refers to “ultimate truth” and represents the first of the “two truths” (satya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 95).

Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) means “the ultimate meaning,” parama: ‘uppermost’, artha: ‘meaning’. In the Buddhist context, this refers to the absolute, as opposed to merely conventional truth.

In Jainism

Jain philosophy

Source: archive.org: Anekanta Jaya Pataka of Haribhadra Suri

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) is synonymous to Samudāyārtha: the “sum and substance” (of a versified exposition of a philosophical doctrine), as used in the Anekāntajayapatākā-prakaraṇa, a Śvetāmbara Jain philosophical work written by Haribhadra Sūri.—[Cf. Vol. I, P. 3, ll 19-20]—Haribhadra as a commentator has here first given the sum and substance (samudāyārtha) of v 1-10 and has then explained the same word by word (avayavārtha). He has adopted this very method on p. 167 but the opposite one m Vol. II, on p. 29. [...] Synonyms of Samudāyārtha:—Piṇḍārtha, Aidamparya, Bhāvanikā, Bhāvārtha, Paramārtha and Abhisandhi.

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General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Jainism glossary
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) refers to the “highest truth”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Those who have adopted a heterodox doctrine, lacking in [knowledge of the highest] reality [com.paramārtha-rahita—‘destitute of knowledge of the highest truth’], proclaim various doctrines. They are not aware of the reality of things because they are not competent to examine that [doctrine]. The doctrine is said to be forbearance, humility, purity, straightforwardness, truth and restraint, celibacy, asceticism, renunciation and non-possession”.

Synonyms: Tattva.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paramārtha (परमार्थ).—m (S) The highest and most excellent object or end of man, viz. the attainment and enjoyment of the Divine nature. Pr. prapañcālā dhana paramārthālā vairāgya For the present life, riches; but for the fruition of God, spirituality. 1 John i. 7. 2 Truth, pure truth: as opp. to all manner of error and illusion.

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paramārtha (परमार्थ).—ad (Used ignorantly for dharmārtha) Gratuitously for pious objects; as pa0 ināma-gāṃva-jhāḍa- vihīra-auṣadha.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

paramārtha (परमार्थ).—m The highest and most excel- lent object or end of man, viz. the attainment and enjoyment of the Divine nature. Ex. prampacālā dhana paramā- rthālā vairāgya. For the present life, riches; but for the fruition of God, spirituality. Pure truh.

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paramārtha (परमार्थ).—ad Gratuitously for pious object; as प?B ināma-gāṃva-jhāḍa-vihīra-auṣadha.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paramārtha (परमार्थ).—

1) the highest or most sublime truth, true spiritual knowledge, knowledge about Brahman or the Supreme Spirit; इदं हि तत्त्वं परमार्थभाजाम् (idaṃ hi tattvaṃ paramārthabhājām) Mv.7.2.

2) truth, reality, earnestness; परिहासविजल्पितं सखे परमार्थेन न गृह्यतां वचः (parihāsavijalpitaṃ sakhe paramārthena na gṛhyatāṃ vacaḥ) Ś.2.19; oft in comp. in the sense of 'true' or 'real'. °मत्स्याः (matsyāḥ) R.7.4. Mv.4.3.

3) any excellent or important object.

4) the best sense.

5) the best kind of wealth. °दरिद्र (daridra) really poor; Mk. °भाज (bhāja) a. partaking of the highest truth; Mv. °विद् (vid) a philosopher.

Derivable forms: paramārthaḥ (परमार्थः).

Paramārtha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms parama and artha (अर्थ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paramārtha (परमार्थ).—m.

(-rthaḥ) 1. Truth, fitness. 2. Spiritual knowledge. 3. Any excellent or important aim or object. 4. The best sense. 5. The best kind of wealth E. parama, and artha object.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paramārtha (परमार्थ).—m. 1. the most sublime truth. 2. the whole truth. 3. reality. 4. earnest, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 51.

Paramārtha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms parama and artha (अर्थ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paramārtha (परमार्थ).—[masculine] the highest or whole truth, reality ([abstract] [feminine]). °—, [instrumental], [ablative], & [adverb] in tas really, truly (taḥ saṃkalpya taking for real*).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paramārtha (परमार्थ):—[from parama > para] m. the highest or whole truth, spiritual knowledge, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Vedāntasāra] etc. ([in the beginning of a compound]; ena, āt, in reality)

2) [v.s. ...] any excellent or important object, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] the best sense, [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] the best kind of wealth, [ib.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paramārtha (परमार्थ):—[paramā+rtha] (rthaḥ) 1. m. Truth; best sense, knowledge; wealth.

[Sanskrit to German]

Paramartha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Paramārtha (परमार्थ) [Also spelled parmarth]:—(nm) the ultimate end, the highest good, summum bonum; universal good; spiritual knowledge, salvation; ~[vāda] belief in the attainment of the summum bonum, faith in the attainment of spiritual knowledge; hence ~[vāditā] (nf); ~[vādī] (a, nm).

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paramartha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paramārtha (ಪರಮಾರ್ಥ):—

1) [noun] that which is the means for achieving emancipation of the soul.

2) [noun] the absolute Truth.

3) [noun] the supreme knowledge; the knowledge of the Supreme Soul, final beatitude.

4) [noun] the Beatitude, emancipation of the soul, as one of the four goals of human soul.

5) [noun] the main aim, purpose.

6) [noun] the state of being real or fact.

7) [noun] that which causes or confers the best result.

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Pāramārtha (ಪಾರಮಾರ್ಥ):—

1) [noun] the absolute Truth.

2) [noun] that which is really apt, appropriate.

3) [noun] the Beatitude, emancipation of the soul, as one of the four goals of human soul.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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