Paraga, Parāga, Pāragā, Pāraga, Para-ga: 20 definitions

Introduction:

Paraga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Parāga (पराग) refers to the “pollen” of flowers, as mentioned in a list of five synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Parāga] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A class of devas. D.ii.260.

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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pāraga (पारग) is a synonym for the Buddha according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter IV). Po lo k’ie (Pāraga) in the language of Ts’in means “having reached the other bank”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Pāraga (पारग) refers to “those who are fully conversant (with various systems)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “That [meditation] which is performed by Yogīs taking the support of auspicious words is regarded as abiding-in-words by those who are fully conversant with various systems (vicitra-naya-pāraga)”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parāga (पराग).—m (S) The pollen or farina of a flower.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parāga (पराग).—m The pollen of a flower.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parāga (पराग).—

1) The pollen of a flower; स्फुटपरागपरागतपङ्कजम् (sphuṭaparāgaparāgatapaṅkajam) Śiśupālavadha 6.2; Amaruśataka 54.

2) Dust in general; प्रतापोऽग्रे ततः शब्दः परागस्तदनन्तरम् (pratāpo'gre tataḥ śabdaḥ parāgastadanantaram) R.4.3.

3) Fragrant power used after bathing.

4) Sandal.

5) An eclipse of the sun or moon.

6) Fame, celebrity.

7) Independence, self-will.

8) Medicinal powder; Mātaṅga L.11.28.

9) Powder; कायेऽपि कर्पूरपरागपूरः (kāye'pi karpūraparāgapūraḥ) Mv.7.17.

Derivable forms: parāgaḥ (परागः).

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Parāga (पराग).—1 P.

1) To return; तदयं परागत एवास्मि (tadayaṃ parāgata evāsmi) Uttararāmacarita 5.

2) To surround, encompass, pervade; स्फुटपरागपरागत- पङ्कजम् (sphuṭaparāgaparāgata- paṅkajam) Śiśupālavadha 6.2.

3) Ved. To go away, depart.

4) To die.

Derivable forms: parāgam (परागम्).

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Pāraga (पारग).—a.

1) crossing over, ferrying across.

2) one who has gone to the end of, one who has completely mastered anything, completely familiar of conversant with (with gen. or in comp.); वेदपारगः (vedapāragaḥ) Manusmṛti 2.148; Y.1.111.

3) profoundly learned.

-gam keeping, fulfilling (of a promise).

Pāraga is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pāra and ga (ग).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pāragā (पारगा).—name of the mother of Śyāmaka in the Ś. Jātaka: Mahāvastu ii.210.6 ff.; 218.9; 229.12. In the corresp. Pali Sāma Jātaka (Pali) she is named Pārikā

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāga (पराग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. The pollen or farina of a flower. 2. Dust. 3. Fragrant powder used after bathing. 4. Sandal. 5. The name of a mountain. 6. Fame, celebrity. 7. An eclipse of the sun or moon. 8. Following one’s own inclinations. E. parā implying supremacy, &c. and ga who goes, ḍa aff.

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Pāraga (पारग).—mfn.

(-gaḥ-gā-gaṃ) 1. Crossing, crossing over. 2. Going over or beyond the world. 3. Completely familiar or conversant with. 4. Profoundly learned. E. pāra the opposite bank, and ga who goes.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāga (पराग).—i. e. probably upa or apa-rāga, m. The pollen or farina of a flower, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 39.

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Pāraga (पारग).—[pāra-ga], adj. 1. Crossing Mahābhārata 2, 2418. 2. Intending to cross, 4, 451. 3. Accomplishing, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 8. 4. Having studied, knowing, [Pañcatantra] 155, 4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāga (पराग).—[masculine] sgl. & [plural] the pollen of a flower (poss. gin), dust i.[grammar]

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Pāraga (पारग).—[adjective] crossing over, going through (lit. & [figuratively]); thoroughly familiar or conversant with ([genetive], [locative], or —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parāga (पराग):—m. ([probably] for apa-r), the pollen of a flower, [Kāvya literature; Purāṇa] etc.

2) dust, [Raghuvaṃśa iv, 30]

3) fragrant powder used after bathing, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) sandal, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) an eclipse of the sun or moon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) fame, celebrity, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) independence, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Name of a mountain, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) Parāgā (परागा):—[=parā-gā] -√1. (only [Aorist] -gās, -gāt), to go away, fly, escape, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]

10) Pāraga (पारग):—[=pāra-ga] [from pāra] mf(ā)n. going to the opposite shore, crossing over, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] one who has gone through or accomplished or mastered, knowing thoroughly, fully conversant or familiar with ([genitive case] [locative case] or [compound]), profoundly learned, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

12) [v.s. ...] n. keeping, fulfilling (of a promise), [Harivaṃśa 11565] ([wrong reading] for pāraṇa?).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parāga (पराग):—[parā-ga] (gaḥ) 1. m. The pollen or farina of a flower; fragrant powder; dust; sandal; fame; eclipse.

2) Pāraga (पारग):—[(gaḥ-gā-gaṃ) a.] Crossing.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pāraga (पारग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paraga, Parāya, Pāraya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Paraga in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Pāraga refers to: “going beyond, ” traversing, crossing, surmounting S. IV, 71 (jātimaraṇassa); Sn. 32, 997.

Note: pāraga is a Pali compound consisting of the words pāra and ga.

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Pāraga refers to: “going beyond, ” traversing, crossing, surmounting S. IV, 71 (jātimaraṇassa); Sn. 32, 997.

Note: pāraga is a Pali compound consisting of the words pāra and ga.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parāga (पराग) [Also spelled parag]:—(nm) the pollen (of a flower); -[kaṇa/kesara] pollen grain, pollen containing fine filament (of a flower).

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Paraga (परग) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Paraka.

2) Paraga (परग) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Pāraga.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parāga (ಪರಾಗ):—

1) [noun] the fine, dustlike mass of grains that are produced in the anthers or microspore sacs of seed plants, containing the male sexual cells (gametophytes) of the plant; pollen.

2) [noun] any dry substance in the form of very fine, dustlike particles, produced by crushing, grinding, etc.

3) [noun] a kind of cosmetic powder used after bathing.

4) [noun] sandal powder.

5) [noun] an eclipse of the sun or moon.

6) [noun] good reputation; fame; renown.

7) [noun] freedom or release from slavery, imprisonment, captivity or any other form of arbitrary control; liberty.

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Pāraga (ಪಾರಗ):—

1) [noun] = ಪಾರಂಗತ [paramgata]2.

2) [noun] he who has crossed over (from this side to the other).

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Pāraga (ಪಾರಗ):—[noun] = ಪಾರಕ [paraka]3.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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