Papakarman, Pāpakarman, Pāpakarma, Papakarma, Papa-karma: 13 definitions

Introduction:

Papakarman means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Papakarman in Ayurveda glossary
Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Pāpakarma (पापकर्म) (i.e., pāpam karmeti) refers to the “ten sinful acts”, and is mentioned in verse 2.21-22 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “violence, theft, adulterous love, slander, abuse, untruth, incoherent talk, malevolence, covetousness, and misapprehension of the doctrine: such (is the) tenfold sinful act [viz., daśadhā-pāpakarma] (that) one shall eschew with body, speech, and mind. Those stricken with want of livelihood., disease, and grief one shall support to the best of one’s ability; [...]”

Note: pāpaṃ karma (“sinful act”) has been turned sdig-p[?]i las (“act of sin”). The plural suffix rnams is striking because of the numeral bcu that follows; it is no doubt corrupt for rnam(-par), the phrase rnam-bcu corresponding exactly to the original daśadhā.

The ten sinful acts recorded above agree in substance with the ten Buddhist commandments (three for the body, four for the speech, and three for the mind) defined in Mahāvyutpatti 1685 sqq. as abstention from—

  1. destruction of life (prāṇātighāta, srog gcod-pa);
  2. taking of what has not been given (adattādāna, ma sbyin-par len-pa);
  3. misconduct in love (kāmamithyācāra, ’dod-pas log-par gyem-va);
  4. deceitful speech (mṛṣāvāda, rdzun-du smra-ba);
  5. abuse (pāruṣya, thsig rtsub-mo [v.l. -po] smra-ba);
  6. slander (paiśunya, phra-mar smra-ba) ;
  7. incoherent talk (saṃbhinnapralāpa, thsig [v.l. ṅag] bkyal- [v.l. ’khyal-] ba);
  8. covetousness (abhidhyā, brnab-sems);
  9. malevolence (vyāpāda, gnod-sems);
  10. heretic doctrine (mithyādṛṣṭi, log-par [?]ta-ba).
Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Jvaranirnaya: a rare monograph on diagnosis of fevers from the pre-colonial era

Pāpakarma (पापकर्म) refers to “sinful acts”, according to the Jvaranirṇaya: an Ayurvedic manuscript dealing exclusively with types of jvara (fevers) written by Sri Nārāyaṇa Paṇḍita in the 16th century CE.—The uniqueness of the text is that one can get a comprehensive classification, symptomatology and diagnosis of jvara, all at one place in this text. [...] in the Pṛthakjāta-Prakaraṇa it is mentioned that the cause for the manifestation of a disease is the faulty usage, excessive usage of food and/or lifestyle. It could also be due to sinful acts (pāpakarma). Along with this, pathogenesis specific to a disease is also mentioned.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Papakarman in Shaivism glossary
Source: Himalayan Academy: Dancing with Siva

Pāpakarma (पापकर्म) or Kukarma refers to “selfish, hateful acts”, which will bring suffering. Benevolent actions (puṇyakarma or sukarma) will bring loving reactions. Karma (“action”, “deed”) is a neutral, self-perpetuating law of the inner cosmos, much as gravity is an impersonal law of the outer cosmos. In fact, it has been said that gravity is a small, external expression of the greater law of karma. The impelling, unseen power of one’s past actions is called adṛṣṭa.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Papakarman in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Pāpakarma (पापकर्म) refers to “sinful action”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, [while describing the visualized form of Navātman Bhairava]: “[...] He who practices the Navātmānanda Bhairava, in this way quickly attains success. O fair lady, it is the means to attain all the things (one) desires. He who has Navātman in (his) heart holds success in (his) hand. O fair lady, the Krama of one who does not deposit the Vaḍava Fire of Navātman is empty; (his) effort, O goddess, is useless. He is not liberated (and is like) those who are sunk in sinful action (pāpakarma). O mistress of the God of the gods, he sinks into the ocean of transmigration which is hard to cross. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Papakarman in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pāpakarman (पापकर्मन्) refers to “bad action”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 39).—Accordingly, “[The knowledge of the retribution of actions (karmavipāka-jñānabala)].—[...] According to the Karmavibhaṅgasūtra: ‘If the bad action (pāpakarman) done by the evil man during the present lifetime has not yet ripened and if a good action done by him during a previous lifetime is already ripened, then for this reason—although presently he is doing something bad—he takes rebirth in a good place. Or again if, at the moment of his death, a good mind and good mental events arise in him, then for this reason, he takes rebirth in a good place [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Papakarman in Jainism glossary
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Pāpakarman (पापकर्मन्) refers to “bad karmas”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The body of embodied souls attaches to bad Karmas (pāpakarmanśarīraṃ pāpakarmāṇi) through actions which possess constant exertion and which kill living beings”.

Synonyms: Aśubha.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Papakarman in Sanskrit glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pāpakarman (पापकर्मन्).—1. [neuter] evil deed, crime.

--- OR ---

Pāpakarman (पापकर्मन्).—2. [adjective] doing evil; [masculine] evil-doer, sinner, villain.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pāpakarman (पापकर्मन्):—[=pāpa-karman] [from pāpa] mfn. idem

2) [v.s. ...] m. an ill-doer, criminal, sinner, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] n. a wicked deed

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pāpakarman (पापकर्मन्):—[pāpa-karman] (rmmā-rmmā-rmma) a. Sinful.

[Sanskrit to German]

Papakarman in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Papakarman in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pāpakarma (ಪಾಪಕರ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] a transgressing of religious or moral principle; a wicked act.

2) [noun] a man who has committed such an act or acts; a sinner; a transgressor.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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