Panduka, Pāṇḍuka, Paṇḍuka, Pamduka: 17 definitions


Panduka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Pāṇḍuka (दीर्घशूक) is a Sanskrit word for a species of rice (śāli) which is said to have a superior quality, according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The literal translation of the word “yellowish-white colour”. The plant Pāṇḍuka is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant.

2) Pāṇḍuka (पाण्डुक) is another name for Paṭola (Trichosanthes dioica, “pointed gourd”) according to the Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. Certain plant parts of Paṭola are eaten as vegetables.

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Panduka in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. from the Cucurbitaceae (Pumpkin) family having the following synonyms: Anguina dioeca, Trichosanthes officinalis. For the possible medicinal usage of panduka, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Pāṇḍuka (पाण्डुक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.12, I.35) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Pāṇḍuka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization

Buddhist Sanskrit texts know Pāṇḍuka, Pāṇḍuraka, Paṇḍulaka and Paṇḍaraka as names of a nāga king, one of the guardians of the great treasures.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Panduka

One of the Chabbaggiya. He and Lohitaka were leaders of a special group called the Pandukalohitaka, who are mentioned as having been guilty of various offences against Vinaya rules (Vin.ii.1, 5, 6).

Panduka and Lohitaka lived at Jetavana and encouraged heretics by upholding their views. The Satapatta Jataka was preached in reference to these two (MA.ii.668; J.ii.387).

They were the least evil of the Chabbaggiyi. Sp.iii.614.

2. Panduka

A Damila usurper. He killed Mittasena and reigned for five years over Ceylon (433 8 A.C.), during which time he was unsuccessful in his attempts to kill Dhatusena, the rightful heir. Pandukas son was Parinda. Cv.xxxviii.11, 21, 29.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Pāṇḍuka (पाण्डुक) refers to one of the sixteen classes of Vidyādharas derived from their respective Vidyās (in this case, from Pāṇḍukī-vidyā), according to chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.


“[...] After making [the two rows of Vidyādhara-cities], many villages and suburbs, they established communities [viz., the Pāṇḍukas] according to the suitability of place. [...] Dharaṇendra instructed them about the law as follows: ‘If any insolent persons show disrespect or do injury to the Jinas, or the Jinas’ shrines, or to those who will attain mokṣa in this birth, or to any ascetics engaged in pratimā, the Vidyās [viz., Pāṇḍukīs] will abandon them at once, just as wealth abandons lazy people. Whoever kills a man with his wife, or enjoys women against their will, the Vidyās will abandon him at once’.”

2) Pāṇḍuka (पाण्डुक) refers to one of the nine treasures mentioned in chapter 1.4 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.


“The King [Bharata] made a four days’ fast, directed toward the treasures, a guide on the path of acquisition of powers earned by former penance. At the end of the four days’ fast, the nine famous treasures approached him, each always attended by one thousand Yakṣas, Naisarpa, Pāṇḍuka, Piṅgala, Sarvaratnaka, Mahāpadma, Kāla, Mahākāla, Māṇava, Śaṅkhaka. They were mounted on eight wheels, eight yojanas high, nine yojanas broad, twelve yojanas long, their faces concealed by doors of cat’s-eye, smooth, golden, filled with jewels, marked with the cakra, sun, and moon. [...]

As their guardians, Nāgakumāra-gods with names the same as theirs, with life-periods of a palyopama, inhabited them. [...] The origin of bulk, weight, and height and of all numbers, of grains and seeds is in the treasure Pāṇḍuka”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Pāṇḍuka (पाण्डुक) or Pāṇḍukavana is the name of a forest situated on mount Sumeru, which lies at the centre of Jambūdvīpa: the tree enveloping the continent of Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10.—There are four forests (vana) on Sumeru Mount. They are called Bhadraśāla, Nandanavana, Saumanasavana and Pāṇḍukavana. The first forest lies at the foot of the mountain and the rest in its platform. How many Jina temples are there in the four forests? There are four Jina temples in four directions in each forest for a total of 16 temples on the mount.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Panduka in India is the name of a plant defined with Trichosanthes cucumerina in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Trichosanthes cucumerina Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Acta Bot. Yunnan. (1994)
· Flora Japonica (Thunberg) (1784)
· Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (1942)
· FBI (1879)
· J. Cytol. Genet. (1996)
· Numer. List (6688)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Panduka, for example chemical composition, diet and recipes, health benefits, side effects, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Panduka in Pali glossary
Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Paṇḍuka, (-roga) perhaps to be read with v. l. at M. II, 121 for bandhuka°. (Page 404)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pāṇḍuka (पाण्डुक).—

1) The yellowish-white colour.

2) Jaundice

3) Name of Pāṇḍu.

Derivable forms: pāṇḍukaḥ (पाण्डुकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pāṇḍuka (पाण्डुक).—(1) adj. (= Sanskrit Lex. id. = Sanskrit pāṇḍu), whitish: Mahāvastu ii.152.15, read with mss. (pīto) pāṇḍuka- vello, with (morbidly) whitish hair; (2) (compare Sanskrit Lex. id., as Jain term; AMg. paṇḍua), name of the guardian of one of the 4 mahānidhis: Divyāvadāna 61.3 (see s.v. elapatra); [Page340-a+ 71] certainly the same as the nāga king of the same name, Mahā-Māyūrī 247.2 (and compare Pāṇḍu, Pāṇḍaka).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pāṇḍuka (पाण्डुक).—[pāṇḍu + ka], m. The jaundice.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pāṇḍuka (पाण्डुक):—[from pāṇḍu] mfn. = pāṇḍu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] m. a pale or yellowish-white colour, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] jaundice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a species of rice, [Suśruta] (cf. ḍūka)

5) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) Name of one of the 9 treasures

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Janam-ejaya and brother of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] n. Name of a forest, [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]

8) Pāṇḍūka (पाण्डूक):—[from pāṇḍu] m. a species of rice, [Varāha-mihira] (cf. pāṇḍuka).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pāṇḍuka (पाण्डुक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. The jaundice; yellowish white colour; Pāndu.

[Sanskrit to German]

Panduka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pāṃḍuka (ಪಾಂಡುಕ):—

1) [noun] = ಪಾಂಡು [pamdu]2.

2) [noun] the climber Trichosanthes dioca of Cucurbitaceae family.

3) [noun] its gourd.

4) [noun] (jain.) one of the four mythological gardens on the mountain Sumēru.

5) [noun] (jain.) the first of the four crescent-shaped huge stone in this garden.

6) [noun] (myth.) one of the nine kinds of treasures.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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