Pakudha Kaccayana, Pakudha-kaccāyana: 1 definition


Pakudha Kaccayana means something in Buddhism, Pali. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Pakudha Kaccayana in Theravada glossary
Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

(Pakudha Katiyana, Kakudha Kaccayana, Kakuda Katiyana)

Head of one of the six heretical sects of the Buddhas time. In the Samannaphala Sutta (D.i.56), Ajatassattu is said to have visited him and obtained from him an exposition of his teaching, which was to the effect that the four elements - earth, fire, air, water; pleasure, pain, and the soul - these seven things were eternally existent and unchangeable in their very nature; that there is no volitional activity of consciousness in them. His doctrine is, therefore, one of non action (akiriya vada). When one, with a sharp sword, cleaves a head in twain, no one is thereby deprived of life, a sword has merely penetrated into the interval between seven elementary substances (cf. the doctrine of the Cartesians, that there is no sin in taking the life of lower animals because they have no soul). In other words, there is no such act as killing, or hearing, or knowing, etc.; no conceptions of, or distinction between, good and bad, knowledge and ignorance, etc.

Pakudhas teachings are also referred to in the Sandaka Sutta (M.i.517), and there described at even greater length, but here his name is not mentioned.

Buddhaghosa adds (DA.i.144) that Pakudha avoided the use of cold water, using always hot; when this was not available, he did not wash. If he crossed a stream he would consider this as a sin, and would make expiation by constructing a mound of earth. This is evidence of the ascetic tendency in his teaching on matters of external conduct. His teaching is, however, described as nissirikaladdhi.

We are told (M.i.250; ii.4) that Pakudhas followers did not hold him in high esteem, in contrast to the devotion felt for the Buddha by his followers. Pakudha did not welcome questions, and displayed annoyance and resentment when cross examined. Elsewhere (E.g., M.i.198; S.i.66; SN.p.91) however, he is spoken of as having been highly honoured by the people, a teacher of large and well reputed schools, with numerous followers. But he did not lay claim to perfect enlightenment (S.i.68).

Pakudha Kaccayanas name is spelt in several ways. Some texts give his personal name as Kakudha, or Kakuda. In the Prasnopanisad (Barus: Prebuddhistic Indian Philosophy, 281; see also Dvy.143; Mtu.i.253, 256, 259; iii.383) mention is made of a Kakuda Katyana, a younger contemporary of Pippalada. There he is called Kabandhin, which name, like Kakuda, means that he had a hump on his neck or shoulder.

Buddhaghosa says (DA.i.144; SA.i.102) that Pakudha was his personal name and Kaccayana that of his gotta. The Kaccayana (or Katiyana, as it is sometimes called) was a brahmin gotta.

Pakudha is mentioned as having been, in a past life, one of the five ditthigatikas mentioned in the Mahabodhi Jataka (J.v.246).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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