Pakshin, Pakṣin: 13 definitions



Pakshin means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Pakṣin can be transliterated into English as Paksin or Pakshin, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Pakṣin (पक्षिन्) or Pakṣī refers to “birds” (living in the forest), according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.29. Accordingly:—“[...] Sītā was distressed to hear these words of Rāma and spoke these words slowly, with her face with tears: ‘[...] Oh Rāma! Antelopes, lions, elephants, tigers, Śarabhas (legendary animal with eight legs), birds (pakṣin), yaks and all others which roam in the forest, run away after seeing your form, since they have never seen your figure before. When there is cause for fear, who would not have fear?’”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pakṣin (पक्षिन्, “birds”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. As a result of all these passions (saṃyojana) and all these actions (karman), they undergo the sufferings reserved for animals (tiryak), birds (pakṣin) or quadrupeds (paśu).

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Pakṣin (पक्षिन्) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Pakṣin).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pakṣin (पक्षिन्).—a. (-ṇī f.) [पक्ष अस्त्यर्थे इनि (pakṣa astyarthe ini)]

1) Winged; यें पक्षिणः प्रथममम्बुनिधिं गतास्ते (yeṃ pakṣiṇaḥ prathamamambunidhiṃ gatāste) Śi.5.31.

2) Furnished with wings.

3) Siding with, adhering to the party of. -m.

1) A bird.

2) An arrow.

3) An epithet of Śiva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pakṣin (पक्षिन्).—pl., name of a brahmanical gotra: Divyāvadāna 635.16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pakṣin (पक्षिन्).—mf. (-kṣī-kṣiṇī) A bird. m. (-kṣī) 1. An arrow. 2. An epithet of Siva. f. (-ṇī) 1. A night and two days. 2. Day of full moon. 3. A female fiend, also called Putana. E. pakṣa a wing, and ini poss. aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pakṣin (पक्षिन्).—i. e. pakṣa + in, I. adj., f. iṇī. 1. Winged (figuratively). 2. Siding with; in kṛṣṇa-pakṣa + in, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 4559. 3. fem. with rātri (a night), accompanied by the foregoing and following day, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 97. Ii. m. 1. A bird, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 44. 2. A name of Śiva, Mahābhārata 13, 1183.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pakṣin (पक्षिन्).—[adjective] winged (lit. & [figuratively]); taking the side of, partial to (—°). [masculine] bird; [feminine] ṇī a female bird, ±rātri a night with the preceding and following day.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pakṣin (पक्षिन्):—[from pakṣ] mfn. winged ([literally] and [figuratively]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) taking the side of, siding with, [Harivaṃśa]

3) [v.s. ...] m. a bird or any winged animal, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

4) [v.s. ...] the bird Garuḍa as one of the 18 attendants of the Sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]

6) [v.s. ...] a day with the 2 nights enclosing it, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] an arrow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] a [particular] sacrificial act, [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pakṣin (पक्षिन्):—[(kṣī-kṣiṇī)] 1. m. 3 f. A bird. m. An arrow. f. A night and two days; the day of full moon; the female fiend Pūtanā.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pakṣin (पक्षिन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paṃkhi, Paṃchi, Pakkhi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pakshin in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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