Paishunya, Paiśūnya, Paiśunya: 20 definitions

Introduction:

Paishunya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Paiśūnya and Paiśunya can be transliterated into English as Paisunya or Paishunya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य) refers to “tale-bearing”, according to the Manusmṛti 7.50. Accordingly, “[...] tale-bearing (paiśunya), Treachery (droha), Envy (īrṣya), Slandering (sāhasa?), Misappropriation of property (arthadūṣaṇa), Cruelty of speech (vāgdaṇḍa) and of Assault (pāruṣya);—these constitute the eightfold set born of Anger. [...] in the set born of anger (krodhaja),—Assault (daṇḍapātana), Cruelty of speech (vākpāruṣya) and Misappropriation of property (arthadūṣaṇa),—are to be regarded as the three most pernicious (kaṣṭatama)”.

Paiśunya (‘tale-bearing’) refers to “the disclosing of such secrets as are to be kept from monitors and other official relatives”.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Paishunya in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य) refers to “slander”, which is considered as having evil influences (vyasana), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.17. Accordingly, “[...] who is he that is not broken up by the evil influences (vyasana) of hunting (mṛgayā), wine (madya), slander (paiśunya), untruth (anṛta), theft (caura), gambling (durodara) and prostitutes (vāradāra)? The wicked fellow (Guṇanidhi) used to lay his hands on whatever he could see in the house, a cloth, a base metal etc. and take it to the gambling den, there to lose the same to his brother gamblers (dyūtakāra)”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Paishunya in Ayurveda glossary
Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Paiśūnya (पैशून्य) refers to “slander”, and is mentioned in verse 2.21 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Paiśūnya (“slander”) has been translated by phra-ma ṅag (“slanderous talk”) (lit. “slander-talk”), whereas paruṣānṛta (“abuse and untruth”) has been rendered by rtsub brdzun thsig (“abusive and deceitful speech”) (lit. “... deceit-speech”). Both phra-ma and brdzun are nouns used here as adjectives.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Paishunya in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य, “slander”) refers to one of the four sins of speech (mithyāvāda) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. Accordingly, Bodhisattvas speak with a smiling face (smitamukha) because they have (among others) avoided the four kinds of evil speech (mithyāvāda).

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य) refers to “slanderous (speech)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Thus he becomes one who subjugates the works of Māra (mārakarman). What then is the subjugation of the works of Māra? That by means of which none of Māra can find a weak point in the Bodhisattva. [...] (27) having a lazy mind thinking that whatever is done by living beings is sufficient is the work of Māra; (28) living in pride with no respect, slanderous speech (paiśunya-vacana), having falsehood and fraud, taking pleasure in fabrications, dishonesty, harsh and unpleasant [speech], not criticizing sins, pulling out the root of dharmas, being satisfied with little learning-dharma, desire for the non-dharma, not blocking obstructions, interruptions, the uprising [of depravities] are the works of Māra; [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Sydney eScholarship Repository: A Study of the Karma Chapter of the Abhidharmakośa Commentaries

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य) (Tibetan: phra ma) refers to “divisive speech”.—Tibetan commentaries including the Grub bde'i dpyid 'jo, the mChims mdzod, and the Abhidharmakośabhāṣya remain brief and make interlinear explanation to the Abhidharmakośa verse that deals with divisive speech. Therefore, their treatment of the topic remains similar in content and length. In line with the focus chosen for this study, this section will present the Eighth Karmapa’s explanation.—The Eighth Karmapa asserts that divisive speech is ‘a word that is motivated by afflictive mind and spoken in an understandable and unmistaken manner to divide others [who are] in a good relationship’. This definition shows that divisive speech needs to be generated by a prior motivation with afflictive emotions as reflected in the Abhidharmakośa IV, 76ab: “Divisive speech is [spoken] to divide others, [which] is a word [motivated] by afflictive mind”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Paishunya in Buddhism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य) refers to “malicious speech” and represents one of the “ten unwholesome things” (kuśala) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 56). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., paiśunya). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Paishunya in Jainism glossary
Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Paiśūnya (पैशून्य).—Siddhasena, in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra (verse 7.21), had explained paiśūnya as “breaking up a friendship between two people by revealing what one has learned by studying gestures and expression”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paishunya in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paiśunya (पैशुन्य).—n (S) Wickedness. 2 By eminence. Malignant lying or babbling respecting; calumnious or injurious statement against.

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paiśūnya (पैशून्य).—n (paiśunya S) A secret vice or fault; a foible, frailty, failing. Used always with reference to the disclosure, and with v kāḍha, pāha, nigha. Ex. kōṇhāēkācēṃ pai0 kāḍhaṇēṃ To babble concerning; to divulge one's misdeeds or weakness. pai0 pāhaṇēṃ To watch for one's faults; to strive to pick a hole in.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

paiśunya (पैशुन्य).—n Wickedness.

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paiśūnya (पैशून्य).—n A secret vice, a foible.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paishunya in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य).—[piśunasya bhāvaḥ aṇ ṣyañ vā]

1) Backbiting, slandering, talebearing, calumny; पैशुन्यं साहसं (paiśunyaṃ sāhasaṃ) ......क्रोधजोऽपि गणोऽष्टकः (krodhajo'pi gaṇo'ṣṭakaḥ) Manusmṛti 7.48;11.56; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 16.2.

2) Roguery, depravity.

3) Wickdness, malignity.

Derivable forms: paiśunyam (पैशुन्यम्).

See also (synonyms): paiśuna.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य).—adj. (Sanskrit id. and Pali pesuniya, °ṇiya, pesuñña, only as nt. abstr.), = prec.: mṛṣāvādinām °nyānāṃ Gaṇḍavyūha 228.14 (prose).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य).—i. e. piśuna + ya, n. 1. Espionage, backbiting, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 6; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 115. 2. Wickedness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य).—[neuter] backbiting, slander.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paiśunya (पैशुन्य):—[from paiśuna] n. = paiśuna n., [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (-vādin mfn. slanderous, [Daśakumāra-carita])

2) [v.s. ...] = bhikṣāśitva, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([probably] [wrong reading] for paiṇḍinya).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य):—(nyaṃ) 1. n. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Paiśunya (पैशुन्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Pesuṇṇa, Pesunna.

[Sanskrit to German]

Paishunya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paishunya in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paiśunya (ಪೈಶುನ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] the act of slandering against another.

2) [noun] the utterance in the presence of another person of a false statement or statements, damaging to a third person’s character or reputation; slander.

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Paiśūnya (ಪೈಶೂನ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] = ಪೈಶುನ್ಯ - [paishunya -] 2.

2) [noun] he who slanders; a slanderer.

3) [noun] the quality of being morally bad; depravedness; wickedness.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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