Padhana, Padhāna: 9 definitions
Padhana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
M (Main, essential).Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
(Exertion) see padhāna, viriya, magga (6). - Reaching Nibbāna with or without e.; s. Anāgāmi.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
(“Maintain”) effort to maintain wholesome things; s. padhāna.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
'effort.' The 4 right efforts (samma-padhāna), forming the 6th stage of the 8-fold Path (i.e. sammā-vāyāma, s. magga) are: (1) the effort to avoid (samvara-padhāna), (2) to overcome (pahāna-padhāna), (3) to develop (bhāvanā-padhāna), (4) to maintain (anurakkhana-padhāna), i.e. (1) the effort to avoid unwholesome (akusala) states, such as evil thoughts, etc. (2) to overcome unwholesome states, (3) to develop wholesome (kusala) states, such as the 7 elements of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), (4) to maintain the wholesome states.
"The monk rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, unwholesome things not yet arisen ... to overcome them ... to develop wholesome things not yet arisen ... to maintain them, and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development. And he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives" (A. IV, 13).
(1) "What now, o monks, is the effort to avoid? Perceiving a form, or a sound, or an odour, or a taste, or a bodily or mental impression, the monk neither adheres to the whole nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things might arise, such as greed and sorrow, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses. This is called the effort to avoid.
(2) "What now is the effort to overcome? The monk does not retain any thought of sensual lust, or any other evil, unwholesome states that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them, causes them to disappear. This is called the effort to overcome.
(3) "What now is the effort to develop? The monk develops the factors of enlightenment, bent on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: mindfulness (sati), investigation of the law (dhamma-vicaya), energy (viriya), rapture (pīti), tranquillity (passaddhi), concentraton (samādhi), equanimity (upekkhā). This is called the effort to develop.
(4) "What now is the effort to maintain? The monk keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration, such as the mental image of a skeleton, a corpse infested by worms, a corpse blueblack in colour, a festering corpse, a corpse riddled with holes, a corpse swollen up. This is called the effort to maintain" (A. IV, 14).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
padhāna : (adj.) chief; foremost. (nt.) exertion; effort; striving.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Padhāna, (nt.) (fr. pa+dhā, cp. padahati) exertion, energetic effort, striving, concentration of mind D. III, 30, 77, 104, 108, 214, 238; M. II, 174, 218; S. I, 47; II, 268; IV, 360; V, 244 sq.; A. III, 65—67 (5 samayā and 5 asamayā for padhāna), 249; IV, 355; V, 17 sq.; Sn. 424, 428; It. 30; Dh. 141; J. I, 90; Nd2 394 (=viriya); Vbh. 218 (citta-samādhi p° etc.); Nett 16; DA. I, 104; DhA. I, 85 (mahā-padhānaṃ padahitvā); ThA. 174; PvA. 134. Padhāna is fourfold, viz. saṃvara°, pahāna°, bhāvana°, anurakkhaṇā° or exertion consisting in the restraint of one’s senses, the abandonment of sinful thoughts, practice of meditation & guarding one’s character. These 4 are mentioned at D. III, 225; A. II, 16; Ps. I, 84; II, 14 sq. , 56, 86, 166, 174; Ud. 34; Nd1 45, 340; Sdhp. 594. ‹-› Very frequently termed sammappadhāna (cp. BSk. samyak-pradhāna MVastu III, 120; but also samyakprahāṇa, e.g. Divy 208) or “right exertion, ” thus at Vin. I, 22; S. I, 105; III, 96 (the four); A. II, 15 (id.); III, 12; IV, 125; Nd1 14; Ps. I, 21, 85, 90, 161; SnA 124; PvA. 98.—As padahana at Ps. I, 17, 21, 181. (Page 411)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
paḍhaṇa (पढण).—n Putting new iron to a worn tool or implement. v kara, ghāla.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Paḍhanā (पढना):—(v) to read; to study; to recite; -[likhanā] to study, to read and write; [paḍhā-likhā] learned, scholarly; [paḍhe na likhe nāma vidyāsāgara] an ignorant man keeping great fuss, a nincompoop bearing the name Plato.
2) Paḍhānā (पढाना):—(v) to teach, to instruct, to educate; to tutor.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Paḍhaṇa (पढण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Paṭhana.
2) Pāḍhaṇa (पाढण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Pāṭhana.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Ends with (+8): Alpadhana, Anupadhana, Anurakkhana Padhana, Apastambashulbopadhana, Asittakupadhana, Bimbopadhana, Caranopadhana, Charanopadhana, Dukkhupadhana, Gandopadhana, Kalingarupadhana, Kshapadhana, Lohitakopadhana, Nalakhandapadhana, Ottappadhana, Padopadhana, Pattopadhana, Pindopadhana, Samma Padhana, Sammappadhana.
Full-text (+45): Pathana, Control Effort, Padhanika, Padahana, Samvara Padhana, Anurakkhana Padhana, Avoidance And Performance, Kalma, Odumbarangana, Kodom, Samma Padhana, Sabaka, Andhanaraka, Four Right Efforts, Phatiha, Andhakara, Antureli, Namaja, Sankharapadhana, Sajara.
Search found 14 books and stories containing Padhana, Padhāna, Paḍhaṇa, Paḍhanā, Paḍhānā, Pāḍhaṇa; (plurals include: Padhanas, Padhānas, Paḍhaṇas, Paḍhanās, Paḍhānās, Pāḍhaṇas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Vipassana Meditation (by Chanmyay Sayadaw)
Apadana commentary (Atthakatha) (by U Lu Pe Win)
Commentary on the stanza on taṇhakkhaya (extinction of craving) < [Commentary on biography of Silent Buddhas (Paccekabuddha)]
Commentary on the Biography of Puṇṇa thera, Son of Mantānī < [Chapter 1 - Buddhavagga (Buddha section)]
Commentary on the Biography of the thera Aññāsi Koṇḍañña < [Chapter 1 - Buddhavagga (Buddha section)]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
The Padhāna-sutta < [Chapter XXV - Patience Toward the Dharma]
I. Lists of auxiliaries (bodhipākṣika or bodhipakkhiya) < [Note on the Thirty-seven Auxiliaries to Enlightenment]
Viriya Parami (by Sujin Boriharnwanaket)
Gemstones of the Good Dhamma (by Ven. S. Dhammika)
A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas (by Sujin Boriharnwanaket)