Padhana, Padhāna: 9 definitions

Introduction:

Padhana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

M (Main, essential).

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

(Exertion) see padhāna, viriya, magga (6). - Reaching Nibbāna with or without e.; s. Anāgāmi.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

(“Maintain”) effort to maintain wholesome things; s. padhāna.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'effort.' The 4 right efforts (samma-padhāna), forming the 6th stage of the 8-fold Path (i.e. sammā-vāyāma, s. magga) are: (1) the effort to avoid (samvara-padhāna), (2) to overcome (pahāna-padhāna), (3) to develop (bhāvanā-padhāna), (4) to maintain (anurakkhana-padhāna), i.e. (1) the effort to avoid unwholesome (akusala) states, such as evil thoughts, etc. (2) to overcome unwholesome states, (3) to develop wholesome (kusala) states, such as the 7 elements of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), (4) to maintain the wholesome states.

"The monk rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, unwholesome things not yet arisen ... to overcome them ... to develop wholesome things not yet arisen ... to maintain them, and not to let them disappear, but to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full perfection of development. And he makes effort, stirs up his energy, exerts his mind and strives" (A. IV, 13).

(1) "What now, o monks, is the effort to avoid? Perceiving a form, or a sound, or an odour, or a taste, or a bodily or mental impression, the monk neither adheres to the whole nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that through which evil and unwholesome things might arise, such as greed and sorrow, if he remained with unguarded senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his senses. This is called the effort to avoid.

(2) "What now is the effort to overcome? The monk does not retain any thought of sensual lust, or any other evil, unwholesome states that may have arisen; he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them, causes them to disappear. This is called the effort to overcome.

(3) "What now is the effort to develop? The monk develops the factors of enlightenment, bent on solitude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance, namely: mindfulness (sati), investigation of the law (dhamma-vicaya), energy (viriya), rapture (pīti), tranquillity (passaddhi), concentraton (samādhi), equanimity (upekkhā). This is called the effort to develop.

(4) "What now is the effort to maintain? The monk keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration, such as the mental image of a skeleton, a corpse infested by worms, a corpse blueblack in colour, a festering corpse, a corpse riddled with holes, a corpse swollen up. This is called the effort to maintain" (A. IV, 14).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Padhana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

padhāna : (adj.) chief; foremost. (nt.) exertion; effort; striving.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Padhāna, (nt.) (fr. pa+dhā, cp. padahati) exertion, energetic effort, striving, concentration of mind D. III, 30, 77, 104, 108, 214, 238; M. II, 174, 218; S. I, 47; II, 268; IV, 360; V, 244 sq.; A. III, 65—67 (5 samayā and 5 asamayā for padhāna), 249; IV, 355; V, 17 sq.; Sn. 424, 428; It. 30; Dh. 141; J. I, 90; Nd2 394 (=viriya); Vbh. 218 (citta-samādhi p° etc.); Nett 16; DA. I, 104; DhA. I, 85 (mahā-padhānaṃ padahitvā); ThA. 174; PvA. 134. Padhāna is fourfold, viz. saṃvara°, pahāna°, bhāvana°, anurakkhaṇā° or exertion consisting in the restraint of one’s senses, the abandonment of sinful thoughts, practice of meditation & guarding one’s character. These 4 are mentioned at D. III, 225; A. II, 16; Ps. I, 84; II, 14 sq. , 56, 86, 166, 174; Ud. 34; Nd1 45, 340; Sdhp. 594. ‹-› Very frequently termed sammappadhāna (cp. BSk. samyak-pradhāna MVastu III, 120; but also samyakprahāṇa, e.g. Divy 208) or “right exertion, ” thus at Vin. I, 22; S. I, 105; III, 96 (the four); A. II, 15 (id.); III, 12; IV, 125; Nd1 14; Ps. I, 21, 85, 90, 161; SnA 124; PvA. 98.—As padahana at Ps. I, 17, 21, 181. (Page 411)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paḍhaṇa (पढण).—n Putting new iron to a worn tool or implement. v kara, ghāla.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Padhana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Paḍhanā (पढना):—(v) to read; to study; to recite; -[likhanā] to study, to read and write; [paḍhā-likhā] learned, scholarly; [paḍhe na likhe nāma vidyāsāgara] an ignorant man keeping great fuss, a nincompoop bearing the name Plato.

2) Paḍhānā (पढाना):—(v) to teach, to instruct, to educate; to tutor.

context information

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Paḍhaṇa (पढण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Paṭhana.

2) Pāḍhaṇa (पाढण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Pāṭhana.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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