Padavinyasa, Padavinyāsa, Pada-vinyasa: 4 definitions
Padavinyasa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Padavinyāsa (पदविन्यास, “scheme of plot-disposition”):—Name of secondary conceptual instruments, used in the art of ancient Hindu architecture (vāstu-śāstra). This term is commonly used in literature such as the Mānasāra.Source: Google Books: Temple Consecration Rituals in Ancient India
Padavinyāsa (पदविन्यास):—A particular diagram (one only) is traced on the building terrain during the padavinyāsa ceremony, before starting the construction. Each square of a diagram is assigned to a different deity. In certain texts, the compartments (koṣṭha) of the deposit casket are referred to by the names of deities associated with the plots of the site diagram. In the Kāśyapaśilpa there are th eletters of the Sanskrit ‘alphabet’ and the names of the eight Vidyeśvaras assigned to or placed in the casket at the beginning of the ceremony, which serve as menas of identifying the compartments later on.Source: The India Center: Architecture (Vastu Shastra)
The Mandala (architectural plan which represents the cosmos) is put to use in site planning and architecture through a process called the Pada Vinyasa. This is a method whereby any site can be divided into grids/ modules or pada. Depending on the position of the gods occupying the various modules, the zoning of the site and disposition of functions in a building are arrived at. A Mandala has certain points known as marma which are vital energy spots on which nothing should be built. They are determined by certain proportional relationships of the squares and the diagonals.
A site of any shape can be divided using the Pada Vinyasa. Sites are known by the number of divisions on each side. The types of mandalas, with the corresponding names of sites is given below.
- Sakala (1 square) corresponds to Eka-pada (single divided site)
- Pechaka (4 squares) corresponds to Dwi-pada (two divided site)
- Pitha (9 squares) corresponds to Tri-pada (three divided site)
- Mahapitha (16 squares) corresponds to Chatush-pada (four divided site)
- Upapitha (25 squares) corresponds to Pancha-pada (five divided site)
- Ugrapitha (36 squares) corresponds to Shashtha-pada (six divided site)
- Sthandila (49 squares) corresponds to sapta-pada (seven divided site)
- Manduka / Chandita (64 square) corresponds to Ashta-pada (eight divided site)
- Paramasayika (81 squares) corresponds to Nava-pada (nine divided site)
- Asana (100 squares) corresponds to Dasa-pada (ten divided site)
1) Padavinyāsa (पदविन्यास).—The padavinyāsa, placing (marking) of the plots and assigning deities on the floor of the pavilion and on the altar, is conducted next (see Mānasāra chapter 70). He marks either the sthaṇḍila of forty-nine squares or the pīṭha of nine squares with grain powder on the fioor of the pavilion. On the altar, he marks either the upapīṭha diagram of twenty-five plots or pīṭha of nine plots. He also marks two circles, one on the floor of the pavilion and the other on the altar.
During padavinyāsa, ritual marking of the plots in the delineated site, the sthapati visualizes the form of vāstupuruṣa, man or “spirit” of the site (who “inhabits” it), as lying face down and stretched out across it, while reciting the mantra of obeisance to him. He also visualizes the vāstumaṇḍala, cluster of forty-five deities, who, in order to subjugate vāstupuruṣa, sit upon his limbs and thus occupy plots in the four quarters of the site. He invokes the deity corresponding to each plot and “situates” it thereupon by touching the plot and visualizing its form in all iconic detail and vocalizing its specifie venerational mantra.
2) Padavinyāsa (पदविन्यास) “scheme of plot-disposition”.—Chapter VII of the Mānasāra is titled Padavinyāsalakṣaṇam, “Characteristics of the Disposition of Plots”. The chapter outlines a number of schemes by which the delineated site is divided into plots. A typical scheme of plot-disposition is a conceptual instrument intended to “order” the delineated site. This tool is constructed out of geometrical and numerical principles of quadratic division. Therefore the number of plots in the scheme is always a perfect square.
The text first gives a list of thirty-two such schemes.
- sakala, whole;
- pecaka, couch;
- pīṭha, pedestal;
- mahāpīṭha, great pedestal;
- upapīṭha, low pedestal;
- ugrapīṭha, high pedestal;
- sthaṇḍila, altar;
- caṇḍita, circumcised;
- paramaśayika, primal rectiner;
- āsana, seat;
- sthānīya, local;
- deśya, regional;
- ubhayacaṇḍita; twice-circumcised;
- bhadra, auspicious;
- mahāsana, great seat;
- padmagarbha; lotus-womb;
- triyuta; thrice-yoked;
- karṇāṣṭaka, eight-cornered;
- gaṇita; computed;
- sūryaviśālaka, extensive as the sun;
- susaṃhita, well-endowed;
- supratikānta, beautiful rival-spouse;
- viśālaka, capacious;
- vipragarbha, Brāhmaṇa-womb
- viśveśa; lord of the world;
- vipulahhoga, copious enjoyment;
- viprakānta; Brāhmaṇa-spouse
- viśālākṣa, large-eyed;
- viprabhakti, Brāhmṇa’s portion;
- viśveśasāra, essence of lord of the world,
- īśvarakānta; lord’s spouse,
- candrakānta, moon’s spouse.
Among these thirty-two schemes, only seven are treated in more detail: sakala, single-plot (which does not have much detail, to begin with); pecaka, four-plot; pīṭha, nine-plot; mahapīṭha, sixteen-plot; upapīṭha, twenty-five-plot; maṇḍuka, sixty-four-plot, and paramaśayika, eighty-one-plot, schemes. The further elaboration of these schemes inc1udes the assignment of deities ta the plots.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
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Manasara (English translation) (by Prasanna Kumar Acharya)