Nishraya, Niśraya: 4 definitions

Introduction:

Nishraya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Niśraya can be transliterated into English as Nisraya or Nishraya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Niśraya (निश्रय) (Cf. Aniśraya) refers to “basis”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “When this had been said, the Lord said to the Bodhisattva, the great being Gaganagañja: ‘[...] Just as the sky is unconditioned, the same way, [the Bodhisattva] gives a gift without conditions. Just as the sky is beyond ideation, the same way, [the Bodhisattva] gives a gift with no basis in consciousness (vijñāna-aniśraya). Just as the sky is spread on all Buddha-fields, the same way, [the Bodhisattva] gives a gift in order to pervade all living beings with friendliness. [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Niśraya (निश्रय).—m. (= Pali nissaya, not completely or per-fectly described in the Dictt.), fundamentally, support, basis (Tibetan gnas, place, abode, place of settlement; or rten, support): niśraya-bhūtaṃ sarvabodhisattvacaraṇa-tayā Gaṇḍavyūha 494.10, it (bodhicitta) acts as a support, because it con- [Page307-a+ 71] stitutes legs for all Bodhisattvas; niśraya…śraddha Śikṣāsamuccaya 3.7 (verse), faith is a support (see s.v. aiṣikā); niśraya- saṃpanna Mahāvastu ii.259.14; 280.1 (here text wrongly niḥśraya°), perfect in the (five) supports or aids, for getting rid of evil and cultivating good; so in Pali nissayasaṃpanna Aṅguttaranikāya (Pali) iv.353.18; they are there listed in 21 ff. as saddhā, hiri, ottappa, viriya, paññā; by relying on (nissāya) them one akusalaṃ pajahati kusalaṃ bhāveti; in Mahāvyutpatti 820 Bodhi- sattvas are described as sarvapraṇidhāna-niśraya-vigata, for whom all basis for (further) praṇidhānas is removed (because they are already perfect in praṇidhānas, as stated in Mahāvastu ii.280.1 and substantially in 259.14, along with niśrayasaṃpanna); app. support (of life; Tibetan rten) Mahāvyutpatti 1849; in Mahāvyutpatti 8669 °yaḥ (Tibetan gnas), of the four technical ‘requisites’ or supports, supplies, which a Buddhist monk needs and is allowed, listed 8670—3 as vṛkṣamūlam (for sleeping), piṇḍapātaḥ (for food), pāṃsukūlaṃ (for gar- ments), pūtimukta- (q.v.) -bhaiṣajyam (for medicine); the same four in Pali (nissaya); in this sense niśraya- dāyaka, m., a giver of…, Mahāvyutpatti 8731; in Bodhisattvabhūmi 193.2 also four, the list in 3—5 is (1) cīvara-, (2) piṇḍapāta-, (3) śayanā- sanaṃ, and (4) glānapratyayabhaiṣajyapariṣkārāś ca; for nuns there are only three of these niśraya, since living in the woods, ‘at the foot of a tree’, is forbidden to them (Vin. ii.278.14); hence trayo niśrayā(ḥ) Bhikṣuṇī-karmavācanā 22a.5—22b.1; na ca skandhaāyatana-dhātau (one [compound] word) niśrayu tubhya vidyati kadācit Gaṇḍavyūha 253.10 (verse), reliance (depen- dence) on (the external world), the being based on (it); in Mahāvyutpatti 5623 (Tibetan gnas or rten) the context suggests residence, fixed abode (between āspadam and niketaḥ); in Kāśyapa Parivarta 103.1 tatra na śikṣā na niśrayo nāniśrayaḥ, the exact meaning is not too clear, and Tibetan as printed in ed. omits this phrase; perhaps as in niśraya-saṃpanna, above, there is no in- struction, no support and no non-support (for moral develop- ment) (?); Chin. no keeping nor not keeping of the moral code; niśrayāhṛta (lābha), received thru support, Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.109.8, explained 112.15 ff.

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Niśrāya (निश्राय).—postposition w. acc. (= Pali nissāya, partly Sktized; a further Sanskritization produced niśritya, q.v., which is commoner and has the same mgs.; § 35.20): (1) relying on, based on: balacakraṃ hi niśrāya dharmaca- kraṃ pravartate Mahāvastu i.277.3; (2) near, by, at, on, in: Upa- tiṣyaṃ ni° Mahāvastu iii.271.7 near, with U.; vṛkṣamūlaṃ ni° tiṣṭhe Mahāvastu iii.53.13, at the root of a tree; mahāpṛthivīṃ ni° (…sarvabījāni virohanti) Mahāvyutpatti 6368, on the whole earth; vanaṣaṇḍa ni° (bodhisattvāḥ) Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 12.15 (verse), living in…; mātur yoniṃ ni° tiṣṭhanti Mahāvastu i.144.3, in the mother's womb (and others in what follows); bodhisattvā pṛthivī- pradeśaṃ niśrāya gacchanti vā tiṣṭhanti niṣīdanti Mahāvastu ii.260.9, go to or stay or sit in…, also 261.10; cīvara- karṇakaṃ cen niśrāya ākramanti pade-pade, aparādhena tiṣṭhanti na te buddhasya sāntike Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 161.1(—2), verse, seems to mean if they step on the fringe of the (monk's) robe at every step (i.e. who violate or disgrace the monkish garb they wear), they abide in offense; they are not near to the Buddha. (Otherwise Lévi, who understands ni° as because of.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Niśraya (निश्रय):—[=ni-śraya] a etc. See ni-śri.

2) [=ni-śraya] [from ni-śri] b m. refuge, resource (= āśraya), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (the 4 resources of a Buddhist See, [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 80]).

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Niśraya (निश्रय) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇissaya.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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