Niruddha: 18 definitions


Niruddha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Niruddha (निरुद्ध) refers to “unable to walk forward” according to the Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta 2.1.168.—Accordingly, as Śrī Gopa-kumāra says: “[...] I was eager to go near Śrī Jagannātha but was unable to walk forward [i.e., niruddha]. My mind had become helplessly deprived of will and, due to ecstatic love, all my limbs were trembling. My hairs stood erect and I lost control of my body as tears blocked my vision. With great difficulty, I somehow caught hold of the Garuḍa pillar and stood there”.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Niruddha (निरुद्ध) refers to “holding back (one’s senses) (from the objects of the senses)”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[...] If one torments the body with rain, cold and heat, …, devoted to recitation (japarata) and meditation, this is called the Great Observance. A woman skilled in the pleasures of love-making, endowed with beauty and youth; such a woman one should procure, holding one’s senses back from the objects of the senses (niruddha-indriya-gocara), and one should kiss and embrace [her], placing the penis upon her sex while remaining focussed upon recitation and meditation—one performs [thus] the Sword-Blade Observance. If one should succumb to the control of desire, then one certainly falls into hell. [...]”.

2) Niruddha (निरुद्ध) refers to the “destruction” (of past action), according to the Jayadrathayāmala, Ṣaṭka 1 verse 13.3–18::—Accordingly, “[...] Thus, the Ācārya should only purify the bad [karma]. Alternatively, [only] the impure path is purified, [so that] no experience comes about [in the impure universe]. [In other words] that [experience] does not have to be experienced [anymore in the impure universe] because it has already been experienced [through the process of initiation]. The soul [of the initiate] goes straight to the higher level (i.e. the pure universe). That is known to be the initiation called lokadharma, which leads to liberation. Such [an initiation] [is performed] when the past action has been destroyed (niruddha), but the prārabdhakarma [is present], O loved one. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Niruddha (निरुद्ध) refers to the “lowest common multiple” (i.e., ‘the process of reducing fractions’) within Bhinna (“fractions”), which refers to one of the twenty operations (logistics) of pāṭīgaṇita (“science of calculation which requires the use of writing material—the board”), according to Pṛthudakasvāmī’s commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta, a Sanskrit treatise on ancient Indian mathematics (gaṇita-śāstra) and astronomy from the 7th century.—Mahāvīra was the first amongst the Indian mathematicians to speak of the lowest common multiple in order to shorten the process.

Mahāvīra in the Gaṇitasārasaṃgraha: “[Definition]—The product of the common factors of the denominators and their resulting quotients is called niruddha; [Process]—The (new) numerators and denominators, obtained as products of multiplication of (each original) numerator and denominator by the (quotient of the) niruddha (i.e., ‘lowest common multiple’) divided by the denominator give fractions with the same denominator”.

Bhāskara II in the Līlāvatī: “The numerator and denominator may be multiplied by the intelligent calculator by the other denominator abridged by the common factor”.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Niruddha (निरुद्ध) refers to the “destruction (of the functioning of the mind)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 4).—Accordingly, “[Question: Why is the Buddha called Samyaksaṃbuddha?]—[Answer]: [...] Furthermore, he knows that all the Dharmas are truly unchangeable (abhedya), without increase or decrease. Why are they unchangeable? When the functioning of the mind (citta-pravṛtti) is stopped (sthita) and destroyed (niruddha), when the path of speech (abhilāpamārga) is cut, he understands that Dharmas are motionless (acala), like nirvāṇa itself. This is why he is called Samyaksaṃbuddha”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Niruddha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

niruddha : (pp. of nirujjhati) ceased; dissolved; vanished.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Niruddha, (pp.) (pp. of nirundhati, cp. nirujjhati) expelled, destroyed; vanished, ceased S. III, 112; Dhs. 1038. (Page 370)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

niruddha (निरुद्ध).—p S Fastened, bound, confined, restrained, checked.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

niruddha (निरुद्ध).—p Fastened, bound.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Niruddha (निरुद्ध).—p. p.

1) Obstructed, hindered, checked, restrained, curbed; निरुद्धोऽप्यावेगः स्फुरदधरनासापुटतया परेषामु- न्नेयो भवति च भराध्मातहृदयः (niruddho'pyāvegaḥ sphuradadharanāsāpuṭatayā pareṣāmu- nneyo bhavati ca bharādhmātahṛdayaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 1.29.

2) Confined, imprisoned; जामातृयज्ञेन वयं निरुद्धाः (jāmātṛyajñena vayaṃ niruddhāḥ) Uttararāmacarita 1.11.

3) Covered, veiled.

4) Filled with, full of.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niruddha (निरुद्ध).—mfn.

(-ddhaḥ-ddhā-ddhaṃ) 1. Stopped, checked, restrained, hindered. 2. Confined, imprisoned. E. ni, and ruddha hindered.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niruddha (निरुद्ध).—[adjective] held back, obstructed; expelled, rejected; stuffed or filled with ([instrumental] or —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Niruddha (निरुद्ध):—[=ni-ruddha] [from ni-rudh] mfn. held back, withheld, held fast, stopped, shut, closed, confined, restrained, checked, kept off, removed, suppressed, [Ṛg-veda] (ni-ruddha, [i, 32, 11]; ni-ruddha, x, 28, 10) etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] rejected (= apa-ruddha), [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa; Kāṭhaka]

3) [v.s. ...] covered, veiled, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] filled with, full of ([instrumental case] or [compound]), [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a prince ([varia lectio] a-nir q.v.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niruddha (निरुद्ध):—[nir-uddha] (ddhaḥ-dvā-dvaṃ) p Stopped, confined.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Niruddha (निरुद्ध) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇiruddha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Niruddha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Ṇiruddha (णिरुद्ध) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Niruddha.

2) Ṇiruddha (णिरुद्ध) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Niruddha.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Niruddha (ನಿರುದ್ಧ):—[adjective] stopped; obstructed; restrained; opposed.

--- OR ---

Niruddha (ನಿರುದ್ಧ):—

1) [noun] that which is stopped, obstructed, restrained or opposed.

2) [noun] the act of annoying; annoyance; molestation.

3) [noun] the state of mind that is subdued, controlled.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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See also (Relevant definitions)

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