Nirriti, Nirṛti, Nirrti: 11 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Nirriti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Nirṛti can be transliterated into English as Nirrti or Nirriti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Nirṛti (निरृति) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the western quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (eg., Nirṛti).

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Nirṛti (निरृति).—A Deva. The Purāṇas contain the following information about him.

(i) He is one of the Aṣṭadikpālas (guards of the eight quarters). He is in charge of the south-western corner. (See under Aṣṭadikpālas).

(ii) He is one of the Ekādaśarudras. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 2).

(iii) Brahmā was his grand-father and Sthāṇu his father. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 2).

(iv) He attended the birth-day celebrations of Arjuna. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 63).

(v) In temples his idols are installed with sword in hand and seated on an ass. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 51).

2) Nirṛti (निरृति).—Wife of the Deva called Adharma. She had three sons called Bhaya, Mahābhaya and Antaka. These Rākṣasas are known as Nairṛtas. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 54).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Nirṛti (निरृति) refers to one of the eight guardians of the quarters, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Śiva said to Sitā:—“[...] the different parts of the mountain Meru seem to be echoing the pleasing sweet sounds of bees etc. which cause the incitement of love of the guardians of the quarters viz. Indra, Kubera, Yama, Varuṇa, Agni, Nirṛti, Marut (Wind) and the Supreme lord (Īśa). Heaven, the abode of the Devas is stationed on the summits of the Meru wherein the cities of the guardians of the quarters are also situated. They are brilliant. Beautiful celestial damsels, Rambhā, Śacī, Menakā and others heighten their glory”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Nirṛti (निरृति).—Childless, adopted the twins of Adharma;1 with his vehicle drawn by men went against Kṛṣṇa taking Pārijāta; but soon felt he could not fight Kṛṣṇa and went away quietly;2 his town was visited by Arjuna in search of the dead child of the Dvārakā Brahmana.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 8. 2; Viṣṇu-purāṇa 3. 14.
  • 2) Ib. X. [65 (v) 42]; [66 (v) 36].
  • 3) Ib. X. 89. 44.

1b) One of the western entrances to the city of Purañjana, leading to the country of Vaiśasa; allegorically guda.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 25. 53; 29. 14.

1c) A muhūrta of the day.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 40, 70; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 41; 111. 40.

1d) One of the eleven Rudras with sword;1 lord of a dik and a Rākṣasa who came and worshipped Lalītā, along with others.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 171. 38; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 69.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 26. 53; 30. 9.

1e) Found Kubera overwhelmed by Kujambha and took his sword for war; when he was about to be vanquished, Varuṇa tied down with noose the two hands of Kujambha; Mahiṣa defeated both Nirṛti and Varuṇa, released Kujambha; reported to Indra;1 beaten by Tāraka.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 150. 86, 126-8, 130-3.
  • 2) Ib. 153. 180.

1f) A Vasu; a son of Dharma and Sudevī.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 47.

1g) As a lokapāla.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 266. 22.

1h) The God of the South-west.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 108. 31.

1i) Worshipped for the destruction of the foe; issued from the arms of Brahmā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 3. 9; III. 12. 26.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Nirṛti (निरृति) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.2) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Nirṛti) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Nirṛti (निरृति):—In Vedic hinduism, she is the regent of the south-western direction (sometimes as nirṛta). She represents the Goddess of misery and represents suffering, poverty, disease, and death. As a deity, she resides in the sacred fig tree (pipal) where Lakṣmī visits her every satury.

She is the wife of Adharma (‘sin’) and they have three sons:

  1. Adharma,
  2. Mṛtyu,
  3. Bhaya
  4. and Mahābhaya

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nirṛti (निरृति).—f.

1) Decay, destruction, dissolution; विद्याद लक्ष्मीकतमं जनानां मुखे निबद्धां निर्ऋतिं वहन्तम् (vidyāda lakṣmīkatamaṃ janānāṃ mukhe nibaddhāṃ nirṛtiṃ vahantam) Mb.1.87.9;5.36.8.

2) A calamity, evil, bane, adversity; हिंसाया निर्ऋतेर्मृत्यो- र्निरयस्य गुदः स्मृतः (hiṃsāyā nirṛtermṛtyo- rnirayasya gudaḥ smṛtaḥ) Bhāg.2.6.9; सा हि लोकस्य निर्ऋतिः (sā hi lokasya nirṛtiḥ) U. 5.3.

3) An imprecation, a curse.

4) Death or destruction personified, the goddess of death or destruction, the regent of the south-western quarter; Bhāg. 1.19.4; पाकयज्ञविधानेन यजेत निर्ऋतिं निशि (pākayajñavidhānena yajeta nirṛtiṃ niśi) Ms.11.119.

5) The bottom of the earth.

6) The asterism Mūla. -m.

1) Death or genius of death; राज्यकामो मनून् देवान्निर्ऋतिं त्वभि- चरन् यजेत् (rājyakāmo manūn devānnirṛtiṃ tvabhi- caran yajet) Bhāg.2.3.9.

2) Name of one of the 8 Vasus.

3) Name of a Rudra.

Derivable forms: nirṛtiḥ (निरृतिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirṛti (निरृति).—mfn. (-tiḥ-tiḥ-ti) Free from violence, tyranny, &c. m.

(-tiḥ) A demi-god and ruler of the south-west quarter: see nairṛti f.

(-tiḥ) 1. Misfortune, calamity. 2. Security, prosperity, immunity from tyranny or violence. E. nir implying reverse, ṛti good fortune, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirṛti (निरृति).—i. e. nis-ṛ + ti, 1. m. Imprecation, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 19, 4. 2. f. A demigod, patroness of the southwest, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 118.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nirṛti (निरृति).—[feminine] decay, destruction ([often] personif. as the goddess of death); depth, abyss.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nirṛti (निरृति):—[=nir-ṛti] [from nir-ṛ] f. (nir-) dissolution, destruction, calamity, evil, adversity, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (personified as the goddess of death and corruption and often associated with Mṛtyu, A-rāti etc., [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]; variously regarded as the wife of A-dharma, mother of Bhaya, Mahā-bhaya and Mṛtyu [Mahābhārata] or as a daughter of A-dharma and Hiṃsā and mother of Naraka and Bhaya [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]; binds mortals with her cords, [Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa] etc.; is regent of the south [Atharva-veda] and of the asterism Mūla [Varāha-mihira])

2) [v.s. ...] the bottom or lower depths of the earth (as the seat of putrefaction), [Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] m. death or the genius of death, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a Rudra, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] of one of the 8 Vasus, [Harivaṃśa] ([varia lectio] ni-kṛti)

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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